(5) A similar phenomenon was also reported for transdifferentiation of mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans into xylem cells termed tracheary elements
. (17),(18) If Zinnia mesophyll cells in suspension are cultured below a critical cell density, the frequency of tracheary element
formation is greatly decreased.
Under in vitro conditions, ethylene enhanced the regeneration efficiency, increased the shoots number and height, improved rooting and stimulated the tracheary element
differentiation (Prameswara et al., 2009; Pesquet & Tuominem, 2011; Yasmin et al., 2014).
Imperforate tracheary element
types and vesturing presence or absence (Fig.
Establishing in vitro Zinnia elegans cell suspension culture with high tracheary element
Pit membranes are structural components connecting one tracheary element
Vascular patterning can easily be analyzed during tracheary element
differentiation form preexisting vasculature, however, their identification during the pre-existing vasculature is not an easy task .
2002), mark certain developmental stages such as tracheary element
formation, lignification and other cross-linking processes in the cell wall (Teichmann 2001, Fath et al.
Other topics include leaf senescence, the biology of arabinogalactan proteins, light regulation of stomatal movement, tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in higher plants, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and tracheary element
formation as a model system of cell differentiation.
Imperforate tracheary elements
. Bailey & Tupper (1918) offered a muchreproduced drawing schematizing the tracheid as a primitive type of tracheary element
in angiosperms; from this, vessels (first with scalariform, ultimately simple perforation plates) were progressively derived on the one hand, whereas on the other hand, imperforate tracheary elements
progressively lost pit borders and changed (by implication, gradually) from conductive to mechanical cells.
In this system, the application of estrogen induces VND6 gene expression, which in turn initiates tracheary element
differentiation from 80% of the cells within 48h.