, bronchoscopy or fluoroscopy are the non-invasive methods for management of disease in dogs and cats (Lotti and Niebauer, 1992; Tivers and Hotston, 2006).
was performed with a flexible fiberoptic endoscope (5.2-mm diameter, 85-cm length; Karl Storz GmbH & Co KG, Tuttlingen, Germany.
Conclusion: This variation of classical operative techniques provides additional fixation of the trachea, thus relieving any transitory tension on the anastomosis; acts as a valve and decreases the air-pressure in the upper airways during coughing and sneezing in the postoperative period; and is an easy access point for video tracheoscopy
of the anastomosis.
was performed and vertical intraluminal tumour involvement was measured at 5 cm (Figure 3).
Preoperative flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy combined with tracheoscopy
is gold standard for detection. However, the symptoms and findings may not manifest until after the thyroid gland is removed.
These tests include laryngoscopy and tracheoscopy
, in which a small fiber -optic scope is inserted through the mouth to examine the larynx and trachea.
, in which a small fiber-optic scope is inserted through the mouth to examine the larynx and trachea.
and bronchoscopy revealed the presence of granulation tissue, which was resected from the area of the tracheotomy.
In this procedure, the fetus's head and shoulders are delivered and the placenta is left attached (maintaining umbilical circulation and fetal oxygenation) while a surgical intubation or tracheoscopy
procedure is performed.
Six medical treatments were related to decreased hospital cost; for example, insertion of catheter or spinal stimulator and injection was related to reduced median costs by $1,048.49 and a tracheoscopy
and laryngoscopy with biopsy was associated with a reduced cost of $1,110.60.
For months he was fed via a tube into his stomach and surgeons had to carry out a tracheoscopy
to enable him to breathe.
At that point, the animal was anesthetized, and tracheoscopy
was performed with a flexible 56-cm bronchoscope (Olympus B3R; Tokyo, Japan (Figure 1).