Burr-hole craniostomy (also known as trepanning, trepanation, trephination
, trephining) is a time-tested intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura-mater to release pressured blood build-up from an injury or manage issues pertinent to intracranial diseases.9 Various international researchers have compared the single-hole and double-hole drilling, but unfortunately reported follow-up periods are short-lived, often limited to acute hospitalization.3 Although neurosurgical clinics in Pakistan frequently manage clients of CSDH, nevertheless, formal studies are skimpy and no such study has yet been conducted at subject hospital.
A sinus trephination
procedure was performed through the maxillary bone for sinoscopy and sample collection and topical treatment.
needle for trephination
biopsy of bone tissue for ultrasound vokod 2 name.
Effect of trephination
on postoperative pain and swelling in symptomatic necrotic teeth.
was practiced by Incas and their tradition holds the "Shaman" performing the procedure, chewed cocoa leaves and spitted into the wound, producing the local anaesthetic effect.
First, he presented with a medial frontal mucocele and Kuhn type 4 cell, which required additional sinus trephination
through an eyebrow incision.
All DM grafts underwent superficial trephination
using an 8.0 mm punch, which is one of the most preferred diameters in DMEK surgery.
showed that the introduction of autologous chondrocytes alongside conventional trephination
and suture techniques improved the healing avascular zone tears in an ovine knee injury model .
If surgery is contraindicated or a different treatment is desired, treatment with percutaneous trephination
or drill resection with or without subsequent injection of ethanol has been reported.
In patients with bullous keratopathy or Fuchs dystrophy in which cell migration is a prominent phenomenon, a large trephination
diameter can help reduce chronic endothelial cell loss after PKP, resulting in a clear graft after cell migration from the donor to the host.
was also employed for seizures throughout the nineteenth century (R.
Shamans bored the skull of live patients to make burr holes, a process called trephination
to allow these spirits to escape. In the 17th century, Thomas Willis proposed that migraine was caused due to vasodilatation of cerebral vessels, closely afterward Eulenberg tried to explain the disorder by strategically placing vasoconstriction and vasodilatation mechanisms at different stages of the phenomenon. Now, we believe the neurovascular theory of migraine where neurogenic inflammation activates a vascular cascade and the symptoms produced thereof are a consequence of the two pathways. However, the pathogenesis of the disorder has not yet been elucidated.