Laboratory test results were negative for rapid plasma reagin, fluorescent treponemal
antibody absorption, tuberculosis (Quantiferon-Gold TB; Quest Diagnostics, https://www.questdiagnostics.com), angiotensin-converting enzyme, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, and human leukocyte antigen B27.
According to the national diagnostic criteria for syphilis (5), only women who had both a reactive RPR (nontreponemal) test and a reactive TPPA (treponemal
) test were included in the study; the stages of maternal syphilis were defined as primary, secondary, tertiary, or latent.
pallidum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TP-EIA), fluorescent treponemal
antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, or T.
A titer of 1:16 was subjected to treponemal
test (TPHA) for confirmation and titer below 1:16 were not considered as syphilis.
Treponema pallidum indirect hemagglutination test (1/10240) and fluorescent treponemal
antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) test (1/10) resulted positive.
Serological tests for syphilis fall into two categories: non treponemal
tests and treponemal
tests detect antibody to T pallidum proteins.
All patients underwent reactive fluorescent treponemal
Effective immediately, the company plans to use the Express II platform as the basis of its newly-developed Express II Syphilis Treponemal
Antibody Assay, followed by the integration of its other infectious disease assays into the Express II.
(EFV = efavirenz; ART = antiretroviral therapy; INH = isoniazid; TPA = treponemal
antibodies; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone; LFTs = liver function tests; CT = computed tomography; LP = lumbar puncture; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; JCV = JC virus polymerase chain reaction.
Confirmed cases of GS are considered to be those relating to all pregnant women who have had a non-reactive treponemal
test with any titration and a reactive treponemal
test, irrespective of any clinical evidence of syphilis, carried out during the prenatal period; or a pregnant woman who had a reactive treponemal
test and a non-reactive treponemal
or unperformed test, with no record of prior treatment (17).
Traditional testing of donors for syphilis is based on screening with a nontreponemal test followed by confirmation of positive results with a treponemal