Lund (a professor of law) identifies this tendency with the Supreme Court's Term Limits decision--"an exceptionally vivid example of judicial disregard for what Rousseau regarded as the core principles of political right." He concludes by noting that something akin to Rousseau's "Tribunate
," a governing body that is periodically suspended and reconstituted with new members, might serve to ameliorate the "deep hostility" that the Supreme Court has shown toward institutions of direct democracy.
All contributors offer a reading of the Tuscan authors as historical advocates of their time, respectively in reference to the act of preaching (Dante, the Rhetoric of Crisis, and Vigilante Preaching), Cola di Rienzo (Writing the Revolution: Petrarch and the Tribunate
of Cola di Rienzo), and a fictional wife wrongly accused of adultery (Speaking Truth to Powerftd Friends and Foes: Genoese Merchants and the Mamluks in Decameron 2.9).
"We cannot overestimate the importance of the change effected in the Roman constitution by the creation of the plebeian tribunate
," writes historian Philip Van Ness Myers.
Steve Baker goes against the stereotypical portrait of Petrarch as a forlorn unrequited lover or a solitary figure writing letters to ancient figures of antiquity or to posterity in order to examine his involvement in the messy business of trying to improve the political reality of his day, in particular, his active support for the popular leader Cola di Rienzo in his insurrection against the aristocratic rulers of Rome ("Writing the Revolution: Petrarch and the Tribunate
of Cola di Rienzo").
Laws were to be drafted by a council of state, discussed in second body, The Tribunate
and voted by legislative assembly.
The Parthian War ended in 117 and, although decorations were sometimes awarded during campaigning, the end of the war is the likely date of the decoration; in any case, this is the most probable date for the end of his tribunate
. The other is less clear; this is the occasion when Maenius Agrippa could have been host to Hadrian.
154, Holconius Rufus' tribunate
was not "an honorary rank" : even if members of the equestrian order in Italy only became tribunes from reasons of prestige, they still actually served for "at least a year" in a legion.
This Note does not discuss a proposal made by Professor Dennis Thompson for a "Tribunate
(for Posterity)," Dennis F.
In both this play and Coriolanus, Shakespeare examines the tribunate
as the advent of political representationalism only to show how it is ineffective.
Tiberius, the elder of the two, was assassinated by political foes during his tribunate
in 133; Gaius, who then successfully ran for the tribunate
and adopted his brother's radical positions in support of agrarian reform, was killed by his political foes in 121.