Historically, legacy solvents like nPB (n-propyl bromide), TCE (trichlorethylene
) and PERC (perchloroethylene) have reliably and economically filled the cleaning requirements within the metal-working culture.
Most of the studies in literature also noted female preponderance with female to male ratio varying from 3.9:1 to 8.37:1.6,7,10-12 Occupational history is important in SSc as scleroderma like lesions occur in workers exposed to chemicals like vinyl chloride, perchlorethylene, trichlorethylene
, organic solvents, pesticides, epoxy resins etc.3 None of our patients had exposure to these chemicals.
The high amount of data and high complexity of data integration and interpretation and natural "biodiversity" of human scientists easily leads to different expert groups coming to different conclusions (e.g., Schneider et al., 2009: 12 experts + 11 in vivo studies: for 2 studies same Klimisch score (KlimS) categories by all experts, for 8 studies ratings over two neighboring KlimS, for 1 study ratings over all three KlimS; Ruden, 2001: 29 assessments for trichlorethylene
with conclusions distributed over 4 categories from clear negative to clear positive carcinogen; CRD, 2013: different ADI derivation by EFSA and JMPR for 23/57 substances).
A recent review concludes that the high cumulative exposure to aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents, trichlorethylene
, ketones and white spirit has an impact upon the development of the SS, and the association between the SS and the occupational exposure may be variable according to gender .
According to epidemiological studies , risk factors very common in the industry are mixed exposures to a number of substances, such as metals (lead, arsenic and thallium) or acrylamide, hexane, trichlorethylene
The Court of Appeal ruled that his condition stemmed from using chemicals such as trichlorethylene
- or triche - at bases across the world during a 20-year career.
Some authors recommend several different cleaning products such as ammonia, bleach, trichlorethylene
, acetone, ether, cyclohexane and gasoline.
Being exposed to some medicines and chemical substances such as bleomycin, isoniazid pentazocine, sodium valproate, bromocriptine, trichlorethylene
, vinyl chloride, nitrofurantoin, and hydantoin etc.
Studies in rabbits have shown that exposure to octylphenol, DDT, DDE, arsenic, benzene, chromium, lead, phthalates, chloroform, trichlorethylene
, disinfection products, among other substances found in the drinking water of animals may promote the occurrence of cryptorchidism, testicular carcinoma in situ, loss of libido and failure of sperm production (VEERAMACHANENI, 2000).
Before electrodeposition, ITO substrates were cleaned by a chemical product such as the trichlorethylene
, acetone, isopropanol alcohol, and pure water under the ultrasonic treatment, and ITO is set as working electrode.
A possible causative role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis of the disease has been suggested and the importance of several occupational factors in the development of SSc such as crystalline silica dust, white spirit, aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents, trichlorethylene
, ketones, and welding fumes has been highlighted .