The iambic measure then replaced the trochaic
tetrameter, which was originally employed when the poetry was of the Satyric order, and had greater affinities with dancing.
And I think that I have an indistinct recollection of his mentioning a complex Cretic rhythm; also a dactylic or heroic, and he arranged them in some manner which I do not quite understand, making the rhythms equal in the rise and fall of the foot, long and short alternating; and, unless I am mistaken, he spoke of an iambic as well as of a trochaic
rhythm, and assigned to them short and long quantities.
In addition, the first stanza of Milton's original is trochaic
(strong/weak accent) while the others are iambic (weak/strong accent).
1 Scott Walker's My Death, Wendy Carlos and Rachel Elkind's opening for The Shining, and the Songe d'une nuit du Sabbat movement of Hector Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique all quote the plainchant melody of which Latin hymn, written in trochaic
metre and describing the Last Judgement?
To elucidate this, he then shed light on the types of feet (iambic, trochaic
, spondaic etc).
In this particular essay Gasparov focuses on the trochaic
Then there is the fourth sentence: "Footprint on foot / Print, word on word and each on a fool's errand." The position of the first "footprint" calls for a heavier stress on "print" to accommodate the iambic pentameter, but the enjambment then puts the heavy end-line beat on "foot" followed in the next line by the common trochaic
inversion of the initial foot laying stress on "Print." The semantic result is significant, "foot" suddenly calling forth the metrical foot of verse, primarily aural, and "Print" shifting to the printed page from which we are reading, the visual medium of the poet's rhythmic beat.
The Kalevala scans in trochaic
tetrameter, a pattern widely known as "Kalevala meter," which inspired many English imitators in the 19th century, such as Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Song of Hiawatha.
The first verse only takes on a song-like character once an underlying trochaic
pattern is recognized, and all the misfit syllables are elided into anacruses (i.e., "Es SAH ein KNAB ein ROS-lein STEHN/ ROS-lein AUF der HAI-DEN").
Of course, the strategies I just described are not always or even usually the product of conscious, deliberate intention: such things as triads, assonance, rhythm (my triad is a mixture of trochaic
and dactylic) tend to happen naturally when one lets emotion summon the language instead of trying to use language to summon emotion.
The core analysis of the earlier studies (except for Mashaqba 2015) leads the reader to conclude that (similar to the Levantine) all JA varieties exhibit (moraic) trochaic
foot, and that JA dialects share the same metrification directionality and the level of extrametricality with other Levantine varieties.
He loosened his iambic pentameter by allowing himself an anapest or two, sometimes even three, in each line, but rarely a trochee (one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed) or dactyl (one stressed, two unstressed) except for the occasional traditional trochaic
substitution at the start of a line.