Once released from the brood tube, the planktonic larvae locomote within the water column using their ciliary trochal
For solving this problem Trochal
in 2002-2003, model with least dimension are developed.
In many spiralians, the embryo passes through a trochophore or a trochophore-like larval stage, characterized by a transverse belt of ciliated, trochal
The stomadeum, velar lobes, and gut in gastropods compared to the trochal
ciliated bands and gut in Capitella sp.
Chaetopterus pugaporcinus lacks ciliated trochal
bands, a key larval characteristic.
Metamorphosis in this species is not morphologically dramatic, but includes a pronounced elongation, loss of trochal
bands and accompanying locomotory changes, and a transition from non-feeding to feeding.
Ciliary structures: apical tuft present; one pair of lateral hooked cilia; trochal
Expression of the reporter gene appeared to be limited to the trochal
cells, and began about 30 minutes after the appearance of tubulin mRNA (3).
columbiana at 10-12 [degrees] C Age Stage [approximately]6 h First cleavage 18 h 4 cells 24 h 8 cells 48 h Round blastula 2-3 days Gastrulation: blastula flattens and then forms a horseshoe-shaped gastrula 3-7 days Gastrula 8 days Foot and head rudiments begin to differentiate, some trochal
ciliary motion; the shell is not yet present 10 days Shell, cilia, and foot with operculum and statocysts present, light red PMO just visible 17 days Heartbeat and ciliary motion in gut visible 19 days Veligers hatch, PMO is black 72-80 days Veligers begin to crawl [approximately]90 days Settlement and metamorphosis Individual eggs are white and range from 71 to 77 [[micro]meter] in diameter (mean = 74.5; SD = 1.61; n = 23).