The main disadvantages of dyes have been reported to be non- homogeneous colouration, variable fade-out, and unintended transfer to other individuals by cannibalism and trophallaxis
(Haagsma and Rust, 1993; Thorne et al., 1996; Curtis and Waller, 1997; Evans et al., 1998; Suarez and Thorne, 2000).
Baits utilize ant social behaviors of foraging, recruitment, and stomodeal trophallaxis
, the mouth-to-mouth transfer of food or excretions, to direct toxicants to nest mates, and most importantly, the queen or queens of a colony.
Exchange of food between workers, workers and queen, or adults and larvae by trophallaxis
or as trophic eggs (as in Myrmecia [21, 22]) was not observed in Nothomyrmecia by Jaisson et al.
among swarm-robots: a biologically inspired strategy for swarm robotics," in Proceedings of the 1st IEEE/RAS-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob '06), pp.
Odour convergence and tolerance between nestmate through trophallaxis
and grooming in the ant Camponotus fellah (Dalla Torre).
The bioassays in which 50 (Percent) and 25 (Percent) workers were exposed with entomopathogenic fungi resulted horizontal transmission among the unexposed workers through oral trophallaxis
(mutual exchange of nutrients among colony members), allogrooming and cannibalism of dead or injured nest mates.
Other reports indicate that the crickets will mimic ant grooming behavior and attempt to partake in trophallaxis
with the ants, doing so successfully in a laboratory setting (Henderson & Akre 1986; Wetterer & Hugel 2008).
Biological examples included ant decision making with scent trails, hymenoptera agreement and consensus through food sharing (trophallaxis
), and the stigmergy used to store state in insect nest architecture.
The most interesting fact about termites is they feed each other through trophallaxis
meaning they get their nutrition from grooming each other.
The proboscis is mainly used for sucking in liquids such as nectar, water and honey inside the hive, for exchanging food with other bees (trophallaxis
), and also for removing water from nectar.