The tunnel diodes
used in our prototypes are various Germanium models ranging from General Electric 1N3713 to 1N3717  whereas the varactor diodes are the low-capacitance and hi-Q type Silicon Abrupt Junction Tuning Diodes (SMV1405 series, Skyworks, Inc.).
Verhulst et al., "InGaAs tunnel diodes
for the calibration of semi-classical and quantum mechanical band-to-band tunneling models," Journal of Applied Physics, vol.
Applications for these nitride (AlGaN/GaN) double barrier heterostructure based tunnel diodes
included local oscillators for UHF television tuners, trigger circuits in oscilloscopes, high speed counter circuits, and very fast rise time pulse generator circuits [1, 3].
"That means it's very difficult to create an infrared diode that will work well." Engineers and physicists, including Byrnes, are already considering new types of diodes that can handle lower voltages, such as tunnel diodes
and ballistic diodes.
Bett, "Numerical simulation of tunnel diodes
and multi-junction solar cells," in
Examples of low voltage tunnel diodes
are studied in , where different tunneling junction dimensionalities exhibit different turn-on characteristics.
Brandli, "High-frequency high-power operation of tunnel diodes
," IRE Transactions on Circuit Theory, vol.
Pawlik developed a process to build and test vertical Esaki tunnel diodes
smaller than 120 nanometers in diameter, Rommel explained.
With the evolution of technology, the variety of devices used for generating ultra-short steps or pulses has expanded to include gallium arsenide (GaAs) photoconductive switches, (3-4) mercury switches, avalanche transistors, step recovery diodes (SRD), tunnel diodes
and avalanche diodes, etc.
Esaki, an Osaka native and graduate of the University of Tokyo's School of Science, discovered tunnel diodes
in 1957 as a result of his research on germanium and silicon at Sony Corp.
He won the Nobel Prize in 1973 for his achievement in the discovery of tunnel diodes
used in transistors.