His name is mentioned by Avienus; by Suidas, a celebrated critic, at the close of the eleventh century, who gives in his lexicon several isolated verses of his version of the fables; and by John Tzetzes
, a grammarian and poet of Constantinople, who lived during the latter half of the twelfth century.
Pindar represents him as buried under Aetna, and Tzetzes
reads Aetna in this passage.
IK Ioni / konk IO biting / botong IS buriti / bursts IU sibilate / subulate IZ tie-tie / tzetze
IL Boii / boll IR heii / Herr (IN) IT Irani / trant IY timpani / tympany JK jejuna / kekuna JM juju / mumu JR ajaja / arara JT jinja / tinta JZ juju / Zu-zu JL juju / lulu JN ajaja / anana JS juju / susu JY Jo Jo (PA) / Yo-yo
' commentary was also included by Ludwig Bachmann in his Scholia in Homeri Iliadem, vol.
Stoning was the usual method of expulsion for a pharmakos.(18) At Abdera the scapegoat was driven outside the city walls with stones (Burkert conjectures that this also happened at Athens);(19) at Massilia the scapegoat was stoned to death;(20) at Ephesus Apollonius of Tyana presided over the stoning to death of a beggar, to purify the city of plague.(21) The mythical eponym Pharmakos himself was stoned to death by Achilles' men for temple robbery.(22) Hipponax, from whose fragments 5-11 West (and Tzetzes
' lines upon them) we gain our fullest knowledge of the pharmakos, wishes of his opponent:
Among the topics are observations on Aristarchus' Homeric studies, the oldest textual witness of John Tzetzes
' Exegesis of the Iliad, Aristarchomastix: Dionysius of Sidon between epic and lyric poetry, a lexicographical collection in two manuscripts of Cyrillus' Lexicon and a new testimonium on Pindar, and around Europe in 200 years: the wanderings of ms.
For the same reason the Lithica survived in obscurity for eight centuries until the time of the 12th-century Byzantine poet and grammarian John Tzetzes
, who wrongly attributed it to the authorship of Orpheus on the grounds that it followed Orphic poems bound in the same volume.
However, in the twelfth century Tzetzes
and Zonaras downplayed the charismatic Xenophontic characterisation of virile-minded Panthea and emphasised the portrait of Abradates, since times no longer approved these 'femmes de tete' (p.