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Extremism, especially in politics or government; radicalism.

ul′tra·ist n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
His attention must be commanded by the signs that the Church, or religious party, is falling from the Church nominal, and is appearing in temperance and non-resistance societies; in movements of abolitionists and of socialists; and in very significant assemblies called Sabbath and Bible Conventions; composed of ultraists, of seekers, of all the soul of the soldiery of dissent, and meeting to call in question the authority of the Sabbath, of the priesthood, and of the Church.
And meanwhile every single poetic effect utilized or invented by Eliot and everyone else among the modernists, Dadaists, Futurists, Surrealists, Ultraists and the rest has undoubtedly been employed somewhere or other by media and advertising, MTV, and even suburban newspapers -- the most abrupt jump-cuts; shifts of image or voice; compression of dramatic scene; and most powerful, the violations of expectation, received opinion, customs, taboos, and so on.
The book's effort to balance the political successes of suffrage and temperance feminism narrows the terms on which to evaluate the first radical suffragists, or "ultraists," as they called themselves.
Bohn's approach is chronological and as I mention above, each chapter is a discussion and analysis of a particular poetry group that created visual poetry starting with the second decade of the twentieth century and the Spanish Ultraists. His brief analyses introduce readers to the topic and invites them to pursue further studies.
By the 1850s, however, they, along with a few other ultraists, embraced electoral politics as the means to reform society and to achieve women's rights.
In Madrid, the introverted Borges joined an intellectual cafe-prowling cadre known as the Ultraists, who espoused the dashing, if somewhat pretentious, aesthetic credo of Ultraismo.