As a rule, thin radial ribs diverge from the top of the crown, which can be observed on low-crowned unabraded
Therefore, in 2012 and 2013, in our surveys maturity of females was estimated on the basis of gonopore condition; females with closed and unabraded
gonopores were classified as immature, whereas those with open or discolored gonopores (or external eggs) were considered mature.
coated surface (marked A) had an average Ti content of ~12% (in mass).
Despite containing rip-up clasts from the underlying Holz Shale Member of the Ladd Formation, fossils in the conglomeratic sandstone were mostly unabraded
and well-preserved with original shell material.
By contrast, pterosaur bones from the plant debris beds are black or very dark brown, some show cracking and crushing due to compaction but most are unabraded
(see Steel et al., 2005), and have spongiosa cavities filled with white calcite and pyrite.
Coated samples were abraded for 100 cycles and the percent change in haze (% [DELTA]Haze) was determined by measuring the difference in haze of the unabraded
and abraded areas of the coating using the haze meter.
After three thermal/mechanical stress cycles, the hair protected with silicone had a smooth, unabraded
Taphonomic Numerical attribute Taphonomic state value Wholeness Shell whole 1 Shell broken 2 Abrasion Unabraded
0 Small nicks; frosted; sculpture 1 eroded, no holes Highly polished; deeply eroded 2 with holes Edge rounding Edges natural 0 Edges chipped I Fragmented; edges sharp 2 Fragmented; edges slightly worn 3 Fragmented; edges smooth 4 Periostracum Loss Missing 1 Partially missing 2 Present 3 Discoloration Original 1 Original, but faded 2 Original color faded to white 3 or discolored (e.g., gray) Dissolution Undissolved 0 Surface chalky; minor pitting 1 Surface pitting moderate to heavy; 2 surface soft; sculpture enhanced Surface sculpture gone; deeply 3 dissolved TABLE 4.
Mice with unabraded
genital tissue largely resisted infection.
Also here, and at other localities, sharp, unabraded
chabazite-Ca crystals are present on rock surfaces that were almost certainly exposed to glaciation, and it is difficult to envision how they could have survived erosion by ice and ground moraine.
We note that, as expected, the largest abraded needles and fragments gave the most concordant results, followed by data for abraded small needles and unabraded
they carry the high melancholy tone of resignation unabraded