, as to undermine the policy's force and
* An inherently cooperative game is increasingly played uncooperatively
that states can act "uncooperatively
" when implementing
Nevertheless, when countries behave uncooperatively
, Hoel found that
(4) Buchanan and Yoon (2000) presented a fairly simple but convincing example of the above assertion demonstrating that, if two or more fully rational economic actors require the consent of all other players in utilizing their own product or service and they uncooperatively
set their commodity's price, the total price of the commodity will be higher and demand will be lower than the Pareto efficient outcome.
If the principal makes large investments in money or other resources because of the trusty relationship with the agent, and if these investments get lost in the case that the agent acts uncooperatively
, these result with the problem called hold-up.
If the operators can foresee the incompleteness, and if they are additionally confronted with unclear contract clauses, they will eventually either try to play uncooperatively
ex post signing the contract, or they will bid lower for the contract compared to a situation where everything is clearly and comprehensively specified.