who reported an overall RF classification accuracy of 82.42% when discriminating three insect defoliation levels (undefoliated
, partly defoliated, and refoliated) in mopane woodland.
This detrimental impact on growth will be particularly pronounced on N deficient sites, as defoliated plants rely more on soil uptake than undefoliated
plants to supplement the remobilization from leaves (Thomas et al., 2008a).
We hypothesized lower values for root length density (RLD) and percentage vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (%VAM) colonization on defoliated than on undefoliated
plants, and also greater values for RLD and %VAM colonization on defoliated and undefoliated
plants of S.
Buwai and Trlica (1977) reported significantly higher levels of carbohydrate reserves in undefoliated
western wheatgrass [Agropyron smithii Rydb.
Leaves picked just before abscission from previously defoliated or undefoliated
chestnut oak trees growing in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia were used in leaf breakdown studies.
Since we used the mean values of undefoliated
saplings of each clone (n = 10), the correlations can be considered as genetic (e.g., Simms 1992).
"Violet lights" of sunlit wisteria above the parade route disclose "other birds than tanagers--/ fluffy balls of fluffy dung," which "flit to a skirl of bagpipes/ in undefoliated
yards/ between backs of rows of houses" in an explosion of life that blows away the very thought that killing could make sense.
plants sampled in December, the nondormant, nonhardy 5939 had the highest root starch concentration (415 mg [g.sup.-1]), whereas the dormant 53Q60 had the lowest root starch concentration (304 mg [g.sup.-1]) (Fig.
It often happens, however, that the time of budburst of a tree defoliated by insects occurs later or sometimes earlier in the following spring than for nearby undefoliated
trees (Benz 1974; cited in Gradwell , Heichel and Turner , and Tuomi et al.
At the canopy level, a negative relationship between tiller size and tiller density, sometimes called size/density compensation, has been well described in undefoliated
(Kays and Harper, 1974; Lonsdale and Watkinson, 1982) and in defoliated grass swards (Matthew et al., 1995).
All trees that were undefoliated
before a certain year were included in the control group for the statistical tests concerning that year (i.e., control group was made up of 40-70 trees depending on year).
We also assayed leaves from undefoliated
, unmanipulated trees, some of which we used as induction controls, and some of which we cut in half with scissors 8 h before the assay to look for a short-term induction response.