And yet it is commonly agreed that Africa constitutes the biggest challenge in the global struggle against poverty and underdevelopment
. Mallaby said existing methods for dealing with the chaos on our continent have been tried and found wanting.
They will be subjected to the process of globalization but on discriminatory terms that are likely to reproduce the development of underdevelopment
Here is the familiar pattern of purporting to solve "underdevelopment
" by emulating Western levels of modernization, even though the possibility of "catching up" is doomed from the start.
In it I set out some of the basic features of the world system and focus on the economic processes and policies which "develop underdevelopment
" in the third world, and which thus contribute to the global job crisis; on the processes which reduce to "irrelevance" almost 1 billion human beings.
"It has become a habit for the governors to accuse and castigate Kalonzo, yet they are the cause of underdevelopment
. We won't tolerate that," Kamandi said.
According to Oba Adeyemi, the claim of Africa academics and intellectuals of being educated would amount to a waste if they failed to apply their wisdom to providing solutions to the problems of underdevelopment
and state collapse.
ANTONIO MARIA Costa, former executive director of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime and director general of the UN Office in Vienna, said in October 2005 that crime is both the cause and consequence of poverty, insecurity and underdevelopment
. This is the case in Central America, South America, Western Asia, the Golden Triangle and much of Africa.
Political scientist Way investigates why pluralism emerged in so many countries under inhospitable conditions characterized by weak civil societies, underdevelopment
, and the lack of democratic history.
Grubbs (history, Georgia State U.) examines American representations of development and underdevelopment
in Africa during the depth of the Cold War, not in order to propose yet another authoritative and competitive explanation for the continent's woes, but to clear a trail that might open new intellectual territory for further exploration.
It is now almost a commonplace to say that the North American economy is increasingly creating conditions of domestic underdevelopment
akin to those of third world societies.
Consequently, they fail to understand Africa's underdevelopment
as an outcome of its incorporation into the world capitalist system as an appendage to serve international capital.