You can't overwork the cows, but you don't want to underproduce
," Brown says.
Because A cannot be sure that it will realize all, or indeed any, of the benefits of its expenditures on attacking B, A will underproduce
they are undesirable and yet may also underproduce
them in the unusual
These passages remind us that ours--despite the obligatory displays of selflessness I mentioned earlier and current emphases on collaborative research--is an emphatically hierarchical profession, in which the economics of postgraduate education, seemingly designed to overproduce graduates, inexpensively staff courses, and underproduce
well-paying jobs, creates a continuing scene of competition in which the gap between a Canada Research Chair and years of renewed part-time appointments is one produced less by ability than by economic downturns and upturns, political savvy, skill at resisting depression, and chance occurrences.
fears of free riding cause competitors to underproduce
Buchanan (1973) explains that a monopoly on violence is better than a more competitive market in the protection industry because monopolists tend to underproduce
Valuable invention and expression display public good characteristics of non-excludability and non-rivalry in consumption, which cause private markets to undercompensate inventors, authors, and artists, and thus underproduce
Unfortunately, markets tend to underproduce
goods and services having positive externalities because there is usually no incentive to do so, since the benefits accrue to others than the purchaser and the purchaser is often not liable for the negative externality.
Modification to the data causes the software relying on the information to incorrectly adjust boilers and either over- or underproduce
steam, resulting in an inefficient process, lack of confidence in the design capacity during critical loads, and any competitive edge that the control software was supposed to provide.
Producers, if left to their own devices, underproduce
We may in a short period of time underproduce
, but on a year-in, year-out basis, we are very consistent.
Shyr-Te Ju, a professor of internal medicine at the University of Virginia School of Medicine, has approached the question of apoptosis by developing transgenic mice that underproduce
IL-2 (one of the most important activating factors in the immune response) and fas (a protein necessary for apoptosis).