The Bigeye Tuna catch data presented here are based only on the grids fished because, as mentioned previously, catch information for Bigeye Tuna was not available for unfished
grids; therefore, we ignored the unfished
strata (Waiters, 2003).
Using scuba and other means, we found by extensive surveying of the oyster estuaries that: 1) Oysters were scarce or absent on several former oyster beds, 2) little predation of oysters occurred on the beds, 3) relatively large stocks of unfished
oysters occurred on an extensive flat in one bay and in a 10-12 m (36-foot) channel in a river, and 4) huge quantities of fossil oyster shells were present in several estuaries.
Here we compare the total unfished
mature biomass or Bzero, [B.sup.Sp.sub.0], estimated by applying Eq (11) to the equilibrium unfished
size structure, obtained from Eqs (23) and (24), with the unfished
mature biomass vulnerable to fishing, [B.sup.M.sub.0], estimated using Eq (12).
The fishing rate [F.sub.X%] is defined as the F that provides X% of reproductive output per recruit relative to the unfished
output level (i.e., spawning potential ratio expressed as a percentage).
According to BNP management plan: "The purpose of the proposed marine reserve is to provide snorkelers and divers with the opportunity to experience an unfished
reef, while not being so big as to completely eliminate the opportunities for fishing the park's (other) reef areas." And just to ensure due diligence, the plan further admits that the no-fishing zone reserve would be created " ...
There are no unfished
stocks left in southern California; only the development of a northern coastal fishery in the mid 1980's allowed the continued increase in landings (Fig.
Incorporation of maternal effects on productivity into population models for Alaska Pacific ocean perch causes a decrease in the fishing rate associated with management reference points such as [F.sub.msy] (the fishing rate associated with maximum sustainable yield) and [F.sub.40%] (the fishing rate that conserves 40% of the reproductive output produced per recruit for an unfished
population) (Spencer et al., 2007).
The latest assessment, as you probably well know, claimed that the spawning potential ratio (percentage offish compared to what it would be in an unfished
state) is down to under 3 percent.
Its latest emergence is in the relatively unfished
waters of the South Pacific by Taiwanese and Japanese drift-net fleets targeting surface schools of albacore.
Impacts of male-only fishing and sperm limitation in manipulated populations of an unfished
crab, Hapalogaster dentata.
Tupper and Rudd (2002) noted a similar pattern in the Caribbean, where larger hogfish were present in deeper and unfished
A population collapse occurs when the spawning stock is so small (1.2 percent of unfished
) that there is no recruitment.