Plant galls arise mostly by hypertrophy (overgrowth) and hyperplasia (overproliferation) of vegetal cells, and usually by the formation of tissues that are absent in ungalled
host plants (Mani, 1964; Raman, 2011).
7.129, horridly 4.31 and 7.347, indict 16.47, implements 1.63, journeyman 9.19, knotted 5.13, lewdness 5.40, mason 6.19 and 21, nickname 7.189, nose (v.) 11.143, observant 161, pastoral 7.296, perturbed 5.150, positively 7.97, potently 7.220, repel 6.47, robustious 9.7, russet 1.122, savoury, 7.335, shipwright 1.64 and 16.19, shreds 11.45, sweaty 1.66, tanner 16.80, tennis 6.20, trick (v.) 7.347, trippingly 9.1, ungalled
9.176, wharf 5.28, wince (v.) 9.141.
longifila adults (3 to 4 adults per d over a wk) were exposed to potted ungalled
branches were pressed and identified by GC and F ML.
To quantify Trirhabda damage, ungalled
goldenrod ramets were randomly sampled from each plot at two dates, Jul.
We measured the temperature of 50 ungalled
and galled leaves and dissected the galls to examine internal and external architecture.
Total inflorescence lengths of galled and ungalled
stems were measured in random samples of three goldenrod populations.
If by strong hand you offer to break in Now in the stirring passage of the day, A vulgar comment will be made of it; And that supposed by the common rout Against your yet ungalled
estimation, That may with foul intrusion enter in, And dwell upon your grave when you are dead; For slander lives upon succession, For e'er hous'd where it gets possession.
Nearest-neighbor galled (g+) and ungalled
(g-) leaves were collected from five trees (approximately equal numbers from each tree) on the following dates in 1991, starting when the galls were first detectable: 20 May(n = 22g+ and 22 g-), 29 May (n = 26g+ and 26 g-), 24 June (n = 20 g+ and 20 g-), 11 July (n = 20 g+ and 20 g-), and 7 August (n = 20 g+ and 20 g-).
A loss of foraging efficiency caused by the longer handling time on large galls was demonstrated in a laboratory experiment in which the number of successful attacks on small galls was 40% lower in arenas where they were presented in a mixture with large galls than when presented in a mixture with ungalled
goldenrod stems (Weis et al.
(1993) reported increased leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and water potential over ungalled
shoots in galls induced by Antistrophus silphii Gillete 1891 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Silphium intergrifolium Michx.