This major reference is an overview of the current state of theoretical ecology through a series of topical entries centered on both ecological and statistical themes. Coverage ranges across scales—from the physiological, to populations, landscapes, and ecosystems. Entries provide an introduction to broad fields such as Applied Ecology, Behavioral Ecology, Computational Ecology, Ecosystem Ecology, Epidemiology and Epidemic Modeling, Population Ecology, Spatial Ecology and Statistics in Ecology. Others provide greater specificity and depth, including discussions on the Allee effect, ordinary differential equations, and ecosystem services. Descriptions of modern statistical and modeling approaches and how they contributed to advances in theoretical ecology are also included. Succinct, uncompromising, and authoritative—a “must have” for those interested in the use of theory in the ecological sciences.

# Encyclopedia of Theoretical Ecology

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## About the Book

## Reviews

“Overall, theEncyclopedia of Theoretical Ecologyis an excellent resource for anybody with a wider range of interests in ecology. It actually defines the field and serves as a starting point as well as a refresher on the basic ideas and approaches in theoretical ecology across a wide range of fields. . . . Its production quality and editorial thoroughness will ensure a lasting usefulness.”—Carsten F. DormannBasic & Applied Ecology

“This is a comprehensive, informative, well-written work that should prove highly useful to academic, special, and public libraries supporting readers interested in ecology. . . . Highly recommended.”—B. C. Thomsett-Scott, University of North TexasChoice

“The encyclopedia clearly illustrates just how important theory is to all aspects of the real world of organisms and functioning ecosystems that it is now so essential for us to protect. . . . A readily accessible, wide-ranging source of information.”—John R. Haslett, Division of Integrative Animal Biology, University of SalzburgBiological Conservation

"Remarkable and authoritative . . . includes essential readings with clear presentations."—Evelyne Bremond-Hoslet"A bold and successful attempt to illustrate the theoretical foundations of all of the subdisciplines of ecology, including basic and applied, and extending through biophysical, population, community, and ecosystem ecology.Mammalia

*Encyclopedia of Theoretical Ecology*is a compendium of clear and concise essays by the intellectual leaders across this vast breadth of knowledge."--Harold Mooney, Stanford University

"Theoretical ecologists exercise their imaginations to make sense of the astounding complexity of both real and possible ecosystems. Imagining a real or possible topic left out of the

*Encyclopedia of Theoretical Ecology*has proven just as challenging. This comprehensive compendium demonstrates that theoretical ecology has become a mature science, and the volume will serve as the foundation for future creativity in this area."--Fred Adler, University of Utah

"The editors have assembled an outstanding group of contributors who are a great match for their topics. Sometimes the author is a key, authoritative figure in a field; and at other times, the author has enough distance to convey all sides of a subject. The next time you need to introduce ecology students to a theoretical topic, you'll be glad to have this encyclopedia on your bookshelf."--Stephen Ellner, Cornell University

“Everything you wanted to know about theoretical ecology, and much that you didn’t know you needed to know but will now! Alan Hastings and Louis Gross have done us a great service by bringing together in very accessible form a huge amount of information about a broad, complicated, and expanding field.”--Daniel Simberloff, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

## Table of Contents

Adaptive Dynamics

Adaptive Landscapes

Adaptive Vigilance Behavior

Age Structure

Allee Effects

Allometry and Growth

Animal Dispersal see Dispersal, Animal

Apparent Competition

Applied Ecology

Assembly Processes

Bayesian Statistics

Behavioral Ecology

Belowground Processes

Beverton–Holt Model

Bifurcations

Biogeochemistry and Nutrient Cycles

Birth–Death Models

Bottom-Up Control

Branching Processes

Cannibalism

Cellular Automata

Chaos

Coevolution

Compartment Models

Competition, Apparent see Apparent Competition

Computational Ecology

Conservation Biology

Continental Scale Patterns

Cooperation, Evolution of

Delay Differential Equations

Demographic Stochasticity see Stochasticity, Demographic

Demography

Difference Equations

Differential Equations, Delay see Delay Differential Equations

Differential Equations, Ordinary see Ordinary Differential Equations

Differential Equations, Partial see Partial Differential Equations

Discounting in Bioeconomics

Disease Dynamics

Dispersal, Animal

Dispersal, Evolution of

Dispersal, Plant

Diversity Measures

Dynamic Programming

Ecological Economics

Ecological Networks see Networks, Ecological

Ecological Stoichiometry see Stoichiometry, Ecological

Economics, Ecological see Ecological Economics

Ecosystem-Based Management see Marine Reserves and Ecosystem-Based Management

Ecosystem Ecology

Ecosystem Engineers

Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem Valuation

Ecotoxicology

Energy Budgets

Environmental Heterogeneity and Plants

Environmental Stochasticity see Stochasticity, Environmental

Epidemiology and Epidemic Modeling

Evolutionarily Stable Strategies

Evolutionary Computation

Facilitation

Fisheries Ecology

Food Chains and Food Web Modules

Food Webs

Foraging Behavior

Forest Simulators

Frequentist Statistics

Functional Traits of Species and Individuals

Game Theory

Gap Analysis and Presence/Absence Models

Gas and Energy Fluxes across Landscapes

Genetic Drift see Mutation, Selection, and Genetic Drift

Geographic Information Systems

Harvesting Theory

Heterogeneity, Environmental see Environmental Heterogeneity and Plants

Hydrodynamics

Individual-Based Ecology

Information Criteria in Ecology

Integrated Whole Organism Physiology

Integrodifference Equations

Invasion Biology

Landscape Ecology

Marine Reserves and Ecosystem-Based Management

Markov Chains

Mating Behavior

Matrix Models

Meta-Analysis

Metabolic Theory of Ecology

Metacommunities

Metapopulations

Microbial Communities

Model Fitting

Movement: From Individuals to Populations

Mutation, Selection, and Genetic Drift

Networks, Ecological

Neutral Community Theory

Niche Construction

Niche Overlap

Nicholson Bailey Host Parasitoid Model

Nondimensionalization

NPZ Models

Nutrient Cycles see Biogeochemistry and Nutrient Cycles

Ocean Circulation, Dynamics of

Optimal Control Theory

Ordinary Differential Equations

Pair Approximations

Partial Differential Equations

Phase Plane Analysis

Phenotypic Plasticity

Phylogenetic Reconstruction

Phylogeography

Plant Competition and Canopy Interactions

Plant Dispersal see Dispersal, Plant

Population Ecology

Population Viability Analysis

Predator–Prey Models

Presence/Absence Models see Gap Analysis and Presence/Absence Models

Programming, Dynamic see Dynamic Programming

Quantitative Genetics

Reaction–Diffusion Models

Regime Shifts

Reserve Selection and Conservation Prioritization

Resilience and Stability

Restoration Ecology

Ricker Model

Selection see Mutation, Selection, and Genetic Drift

Sex, Evolution of

Single-Species Metapopulations see Metapopulations

Single-Species Population Models

SIR Models

Spatial Ecology

Spatial Models, Stochastic

Spatial Spread

Species Ranges

Stability Analysis

Stage Structure

Statistics in Ecology

Stochasticity

Stochasticity, Demographic

Stochasticity, Environmental

Stoichiometry, Ecological

Storage Effect

Stress and Species Interactions

Succession

Synchrony, Spatial

Top-Down Control

Toxicology, Environmental see Ecotoxicology

Transport in Individuals

Two-Species Competition

Urban Ecology