radiata females can discriminate between parasitized and unparasitized
host nymphs due to marking by the females (Chen et al.
virginalis, a factorial experiment could be conducted in the field, where different levels of conspecific density and food are imposed on laboratory reared caterpillars (i.e., unparasitized
citrella adults obtained from unparasitized
individuals from the above experiments conducted at 15-35+-1degC were counted and the parasitization rate of C.
The analysis of variance indicated that there wasno significant difference among the parasitized and unparasitized
pupae of flies in the different depths of plant debris and age intervals (Pless than 0.05).
Within this habitat, parasitized nests were at a mean height of 3.08 [+ or -] 0.33 m compared to a mean nest height of 2.80 [+ or -] 0.16 m (n = 54 nests) for unparasitized
nests; however, the distributions of nest heights in parasitized and unparasitized
nests were not significantly different (U = 203.0, P = 0.327).
perna, infiltration was linked to unknown metazoans, but was also observed in unparasitized
mussels, and may be related to reproductive physiology or to an unidentified potential agent.
The superparasitism can be advantageous when the number of unparasitized
hosts is low in the field (van Alphen and Visser 1990).
It is thought to result from a combination of hemolysis of parasitized red blood cells, accelerated removal of both parasitized and innocently unparasitized
red blood cells, depressed and ineffective erythropoiesis with dyserythropoietic changes, and anemia of chronic disease.
When lots of predators lurk, the cuckoo chick's strong defense mechanism--releasing a caustic, stinking slime from its rear--may explain why parasitized nests are more likely to fledge a crow chick than unparasitized
Although not completely understood, it is often thought to result from a combination of hemolysis of parasitized red blood cells, accelerated removal of both parasitized and unparasitized
red blood cells, depressed as well as ineffective erythropoiesis with dyserythropoietic changes, and anemia of chronic disease.
asthenogmus were captured near unparasitized
triatomine colonies in the municipality of Vitoria, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, and placed into pots with recently laid triatomine eggs.
Major pathophysiological processes typical for Plasmodium falciparum malaria are the parasite adhesion to the endothelium, rosetting, the sequestration of parasitized and unparasitized
red blood cells (RBCs) in peripheral small vessels, and the decreased deformability of RBCs resulting in impaired microcirculation and lactic acidosis.