In 1998 the Ukrainian Prosecutor General's Office (UPGO) expressed interest in contracting with Universal Trading & Investment Co.
On November 26, 2010 UTICo filed a complaint in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts suing UPGO and the Bureau for Representing Ukrainian Interests in International and Foreign Courts (the Bureau) for breach of contract for rendering services to UPGO without any compensation.
Bureau for Representing Ukrainian Interests in Int'l & Foreign Courts, the First Circuit disallowed UPGO from claiming sovereign immunity based on the commercial activity exception of the FSIA.
The First Circuit determined that there was a sufficient nexus between UPGO's acts and the United States because the offer for the unilateral contract took place in the United States and it was through the offer that UPGO engaged in commerce in the U.S.
In analyzing whether UPGO was exempt from sovereign immunity, the First Circuit correctly applied the commercial activity exception.
(53) It is irrelevant that the entire purpose of the commercial activity between UPGO and UTICo was to benefit a sovereign.
Physical function was assessed using the 6-minute walk test (WALK), the timed up-and-go test (UPGO), and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT).
For the UPGO, participants began the assessment seated in a chair without arms.
Compared with CON, persons with MS had significantly poorer performance on all measures of LLPF: 27 percent shorter WALK distance, 53 percent slower UPGO speed, and reduced reach lengths in the ANT, MED, and POST directions (right: 8.0%, 9.3%, 21.6%; left: 6.2%, 16.5%, 22.0%, respectively), as shown in Table 2.
Step count was strongly associated with all tasks of physical function, including WALK, UPGO, and SEBT, in persons with MS (r = 0.84, -0.71, 0.56, respectively; all p < 0.05), while only significantly associated with WALK in CON (r = 0.53, p < 0.05).
Evaluating median splits for %Fat and LM-LEG/BM (Table 4 and Figure (a)-(f)), in the absence of any interactions, main effects (all p < 0.05) were determined for (1) %Fat and group, such that higher %Fat and MS were associated with slower UPGO time; and (2) LM-LEG/ BM and group, with a lower ratio and MS being associated with shorter WALK distance, slower UPGO time, and lower SEBT composite score.
This is especially true for tasks that mimic activities of daily living that require moving the BM in an ambulatory fashion, such as UPGO and WALK.