In 2012, Ariel founded UpStep
, Inc, a creative marketing and project management firm that focuses on influencing sales through use of various marketing tools and completing projects within time and budget.
According to our correspondence a (2, 2) upstep
indicates that the next heap forms a 132 pattern while a (1, 3) upstep
indicates that the next heap in the forest forms a 123 pattern.
If j appears only in the first row, then the jth segment of [P.sub.T] is an upstep
. If j appears only in the second row of T, the jth segment of [P.sub.T] is a downstep.
One might argue that floating tones should only be able to cause the phonetic component to manipulate pitch in the direction of the tonal range that it specifies; in that case, (5a) could only give rise to downstep, whereas the interpretation of (5b) as downstep or upstep
would be language-specific--perhaps a more desirable result since we would otherwise lack a formal representation for upstep
The transcription system follows INTSINT (INternational Transcription System for INTonation) developed by Hirst and Di Cristo (1998) for use specifically with French and English, where [A] (Higher) and [B] (Lower) represent pitch points relatively higher or lower than the immediately preceding pitch point; [D] (Downstep) and [E] (Upstep
) represent a slight downstepping (lowering) or upstepping (raising) of pitch relative to the preceding point (and are used in this paper to indicate smaller pitch changes than those transcribed as Higher or Lower); and [F] (Top) and [G] (Bottom) represent more extreme high and low values with respect to the speaker's vocal range.
Sosa's solution is the following: "La solucion que planteamos para dar cuenta de este efecto ha sido postular un efecto de upstep
puramente local producido por un tono de juntura inicial opcional H%, restringido a las preguntas absolutas, que elevaria la frecuencia de la primera silaba acentuada" (p.