Downstepping occurred far more frequently than did upstepping
(raised pitch on successive pitch accents), and any upstepping
that did occur was very minimal.
If you don't know "frenching" and "tunneling" from "chopping" and "channeling," or the difference between "upstepping
" and "low-riding," then chances are your car still looks like it did when you bought it.
The transcription system follows INTSINT (INternational Transcription System for INTonation) developed by Hirst and Di Cristo (1998) for use specifically with French and English, where [A] (Higher) and [B] (Lower) represent pitch points relatively higher or lower than the immediately preceding pitch point; [D] (Downstep) and [E] (Upstep) represent a slight downstepping (lowering) or upstepping
(raising) of pitch relative to the preceding point (and are used in this paper to indicate smaller pitch changes than those transcribed as Higher or Lower); and [F] (Top) and [G] (Bottom) represent more extreme high and low values with respect to the speaker's vocal range.