--Renal graft: ischemia time, [greater than or equal to] 2 graft arteries, [greater than or equal to]2 graft veins, ureteral duplication
, ureteral implant technique, ureteral stent use, surgical bleeding, surgical time, time to stent withdrawal, ureteral stenosis diagnostic method, time to ureteral stenosis development, treatment type (surgical, endoscopic, interventional).
Ultrasound of the urinary tract can demonstrate the exact length of each urethra, looking for stenosis, diverticulations, and anomalies of the periurethral soft tissues as well as associated malformations such as bladder, ureteral duplication
, or renal agenesis .
Vesicoureteral reflux in complete ureteral duplication
: surgical options.
Our cases is very rare one demonstrating left ureteral duplication
with a blind ending distal branch showing uretero-ureteral reflux.
Basis of duplex kidney formation by embryology is explained as development of two ureteral buds separately from a single mesonephric duct gives rise to a duplex kidney with complete ureteral duplication
. On the other hand, bifurcation of a single ureteral bud proximal to the ampulla gives rise to a duplex kidney with a bifid pelvis or ureter3.
Delayed and incomplete opacification of the right urinary system after 15 minutes suggested either the presence of a ureteral duplication
or the extravasation of iodinated contrast medium.
The remainder of the volume's 175 chapters are organized into sections covering surgical approaches to the kidney, kidney reconstruction, the adrenal gland, ureteroneocystostomy, operations for ureteral duplication
, approaches to the bladder, bladder reconstruction, noncontinent urinary diversion, catheterizable continent channels, bladder augmentation, continent urinary diversion, testes reconstruction, testis exclusion, groin reconstruction, principles of hypospadias repair, hypospadias operations, penile reconstruction, genital repair, and the urethra.
However, "practitioners should realize that in our experience there is a decreased efficacy in patients with high-grade reflux and ureteral duplication
(1) The exact incidence of UPJ obstruction in the setting of incomplete ureteral duplication
is uncertain but is considered exceedingly rare.
(4) Complete ureteral duplication
with two separate openings in the urinary bladder is also extremely rare.
80% of ectopic ureters are associated with a ureteral duplication
. It drains in urethra (35%), vulval vestibule (34%), vagina (25%) and uterus (5%).
We present a case of an adult woman with a hypoplastic supernumerary kidney with a complete ureteral duplication
and an ectopic junction.