We defined graft US as a rise in serum creatinine associated with hydronephrosis on ultrasound, an obstructive curve in scintigraphy or a retrograde pyelography compatible with ureteral stenosis that were managed surgically (ureteroneocystostomy, Boari flap ureteroneocystostomy or ureteroureterostomy), endoscopically (retrograde double J stent catheterization, balloon dilation or ureterotomy) or by interventional radiology treatment (nephrostomy or antegrade double J stent catheterization).
The stones that migrated into the kidney during laparoscopic surgery were retrieved using a basket through the more convenient caudal 5mm port using a flexible cystoscope (11272C115.5 FR Karl-Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany), which was introduced into the ureter through a proximal ureterotomy. Intraoperative JJ stents were inserted through the laparoscopic port and were placed in the ureter.
(22,23) It has been further reported that MMC decreases hemosiderin-laden macrophages, mononuclear cell infiltration, and fibrosis after internal ureterotomy compared with control groups in a rat model.
reported a diffuse leiomyoma of the ureter as a complication of multiple endocrinoma (MEN) type 1.10 Shailesh et al, reported that if preoperative studies and intraoperative findings strongly suggest a benign lesion, some urologists recommend a ureterotomy and biopsy of the lesion for frozen section