Old, pluriparous mares sometimes suffer from reflux of urine into the vagina during urination attributable to conformational changes in the vestibule and vagina that result from progressive descent of these structures into the abdomen from repeated stretching, during pregnancy, of the tissues that suspend the uterus and birth canal., These conformational changes cause the external urethral orifice
to be positioned cranial and ventral to the brim of the pelvis and dorsal to the cranial portion of the vagina, leading to pooling of urine in the vaginal fornix.
The animal recovered without any complications, however, owner complained of urine dribbling through urethral orifice
continuously for a month which subsequently was not recorded.
By comparing Goh classes 1 and 2 (where the fistula is >2.5 cm distance to the external urethral orifice
) and Goh classes 3 and 4 (where the fistula is [less than or equal to]2.5 cm from the external urethral orifice
), those with Goh classes 3 and 4 are statistically significantly more likely to have stress incontinence and a heavier pad weight (Table 3).
In our case, voiding radiographs revealing the two ureters simultaneously were not obtained, but the two-stage opacification of each urethral orifice
made it possible to visualize the urethral pathways and their orifices.
These are located about the same distance away from the internal urethral orifice
(Lumen Learning, 2016).
To create the urethral orifice
on the proximal aspect of the urethra, the angle between the bladder and the urethra had to be lower than 45[degrees] to avoid kinking of the urethra (Figure 1D).
They concluded that obstruction of the internal urethral orifice
was as a result of compression of the lower bladder from displacement of the cervix and not due to compression or distortion of the urethra itself .
In BBS females genital abnormalities include hypoplastic fallopian tubes, uterus and ovaries, partial and complete vaginal atresia, absent vaginal orifice and absent urethral orifice
, whereas males have small penis and testes (88%).
Sometimes the ducts open into the area just outside the urethral orifice
. Skene's glands are the largest of the paraurethral glands; however, many smaller glands empty into the urethra.
Male patients had significantly better treatment outcomes at the urethral orifice
than those in other affected parts.
In mild cases of hypospadias, the genitalia appear normal except for an abnormally sited urethral orifice
. Hypospadias is the second most common congenital abnormality after cryptorchidism in men .
The clear fluid might just be coming from the normal urethral orifice