(58) In addition to the drugs, each chest also included a set of weights and scales, clearly-written memoires instructifs (single-sheet instructions) for those who would distribute them, and a copy of his own Traite des maladies les plus frequentes, which provides a short introduction to medicine, including the rudiments of pulse taking and uroscopy
, instructions for the delivery of the different medications included in each chest, and recipes intended to feed convalescents on 2 sols each per day.
The book was a short treatise on the common theme of uroscopy
- the diagnosis of illness using a patient's urine.
There has been a steady progression in the sophistication of uroscopy
, or urinalysis by the senses, through the millennia: from ancient Hindus noting that black ants were attracted to sweet urine, to the medieval development of the graduated urine glass known as a matula for determining color; from the first qualitative urine glucose test in 1850 to automated dipstick readers in the 1970s; from Leeuwenhoek's single lens microscope in 1595 to urine particle flow cytometers of today.
This is followed by an exposition of uroscopy
and a further explanation of humours and complexions (ff.
The topics include Paracelsian uroscopy
and German chemiatric medicine in the Medicina Pensylvania of George de Benneville, the patients view of therapeutic pluralism and conflicting medical opinion, and the transmission of medical and pharmaceutical knowledge to colonial North America.
ROSETTE, SCLEROSIS, THROSTLE, UROSCOPY
, VIROSIS, WROS(SE) = 'worse', XEROSIS, YCROST (crossed), ZEROS
manuscripts intended as guides for physicians depict rows of glasses holding colored urines.
Towards proteomics in uroscopy
: urinary protein profiles after radiocontrast medium administration.
Her discussion of uroscopy--the analysis and use of urine in diagnosis and treatment--will hold the attention of even the most jaded medievalist or overworked graduate student; the connections between uroscopy
and virginity are stunning and, once explained, eminently sensible.
(11) The average man or woman on the street sought his or her doctor under another sign, that of the bladder-shaped urine flask, the principal diagnostic instrument for centuries and universal sign of the physician, versed in the art of uroscopy
: the matula in Latin (figs.
, the observation of urine, depended on vision and smell.