For the dorsals, palatals are [+ high, - back] (/-colored), velars are [+ high, + back] (u-colored), and uvulars are [+ low, + back] (a-colored).
5.4.1 Due to the split of its uvulars, Proto-Elamitic has a more complex set of dorsals, PEI /*q, *x, *k, *k/.
Baxter, Reconstructing Old Chinese Uvulars
in the Baxter Sagart System (Version 0.99), Cahiers de linguistique Asie orientale 38: 221-44.
There are linguistic reasons to believe, however, that the stone pillar is not a fake: the velar fricatives (Haudricourt's uvulars
) are adequately represented in the inscription; it is quite doubtful that a fake stone pillar could have been engraved by a linguist who would have read Haudricourt's 1952 article on the uvulars
However, there are similarities in the patterns of the velars (and uvulars) in Kurux and Malto on one hand and in Brahui on the other.
However, this list is not exhaustive, and most forms with multiple velars or uvulars are cited only once.
In a comparative statement about velars (uvulars
) and pharyngeals, V.
Palatals (i.e., front k) are [+high, -low, -back], velars are [+high, -low, +back], uvulars are [-high, -low, +back], and pharyngeals are [-high, +low, +back].
The height-neutral feature back will not form a constriction by itself in the mouth, except for the far-back uvular articulation.
Here, Holes presents a review of those features which are "salient markers of geography or identity," such as variation in the pronunciation of interdentals, velars and uvulars
, the alveolar fricative /j/, and the various reflexes of /q/.
In the case of the guttural initials, *k, *kh, *g, *x, and *ng pharyngealization would have had the effect of creating uvulars
: *'kan would have been pronounced [qan].
For example, while many rhotics exhibit a conspicuously lowered third formant (F3) of their acoustic spectrum, such a "dip" is not characteric of rhotics in general: Uvular
r-sounds have a high third formant, sometimes close to the fourth formant.