The parasitophorous vacuolar membrane
appeared undulating, with knob-like blebs and invaginations.
The Ca2+ ion was concentrated to the vacuolar membrane
in a linear pattern.
Yoshida, "Vacuolar membrane
lesions induced by a freeze-thaw cycle in protoplasts isolated from deacclimated tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)," Plant and Cell Physiology, vol.
The vacuolar membrane
protein gamma-TIP creates water specific channels in Xenopus oocytes.
Under salinity, the great problem faced by plants is to maintain [Na.sup.+] homeostasis in the cytosol because low cytosolic [Na.sup.+] is crucial for cell metabolism [9-11], and this can be achieved by [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiporters located in vacuolar membrane
and plasma membrane.
In addition to being localized at the vacuolar membrane
, where they (v-ATPases) acidify the vacuole, they are also found at the plasma membrane of several mammalian cell types [97-100], where they pump protons towards extracellular space .
The activity of NHX and SOS transport system is driven by the proton-motive force generated by the vacuolar membrane
[H.sup.+]-ATPase, [H.sup.+]-pyrophosphatase and plasma membrane [H.sup.+]-ATPase respectively.
 Martinoia, E., Massonneau, A., and Frangne, N., 2000, "Transport processes of solutes across the vacuolar membrane
of higher plants," Plant Cell Physiol., 41, pp.
CA activity in the sea anemone Aiptasia pulachella was elevated in symbiotic versus nonsymbiotic (aposymbiotic) sea anemones and was localized, using colloidal gold immunocytochemistry, to the host-derived vacuolar membrane
surrounding the symbiont.
Unless otherwise indicated, sodium azide (5 mM) and bafilomycin [A.sub.1] (0.1 [Mu]M) were added to inhibit ATPase activity from the mitochondrial and vacuolar membrane
If we insert two microcapillary electrodes in the cell, we can resolve that these two components are the result of two action potentials; a fast one that occurs across the plasma membrane and a slow one that occurs across the vacuolar membrane
(Findlay & Hope, 1964a).