Anderson et al reported that alcohols and the hydrocarbons in gasoline formed non-ideal mixtures with vapour pressures that were higher than would be expected for ideal mixtures.
The volatility of the blend is specified in terms of vapour pressure, and measured by the ASTM D5191 Dry Vapour Pressure Equivalent (DVPE) test method.
This paper is concerned primarily with the minimum vapour pressure requirements of Canadian winter fuels, Class III and Class IV, which are intended for 10% low-end design temperatures of <-7 [degrees]C and <- 20 [degrees]C respectively.
Appropriate seasonal vapour pressure limits can ensure that fuel tank vapour space mixtures are always too rich to be flammable so that it would be impossible for an ignition source (such as a faulty electric fuel pump) to cause a vehicle fire.
The reason is that, even nowadays, temperatures and vapour pressures at which gypsum and anhydrite coexist in the presente of vapour cannot be determined directly due to kinetic hindrances to attain the equilibrium (Freyer & Voigt, 2004, Vanko & Bach, 2005).
On the other hand, the increases in water activity generates true metastable conditions for both gypsum and anhydrite occurring at vapour pressures below the vapour pressure imposed in pure water.
This paper deals with the effects of temperature, confinement (external) pressure and water activity on the solubility and the characteristic vapour pressure of the Ca-S[O.
Then, the occurrence of stable phases of both minerals in the presence of saturated solutions (L) and vapour (V) (namely, binary states G + V, G + L, A + L and A + V) is a multi-dependent phenomenon associated with specific values of vapour pressure, uv.
Robust detection of plastic explosives, which exhibit low vapour pressures
, will still require residue detection even though bodies such as ICAO are encouraging the use of vapour `taggants'.
The contribution in question drew attention to the fact that evaporation from several phases in equilibrium enabled the formulation of systems evaporating with constant vapour pressure during extended times.
The general dependence of the vapour pressure on the emulsion composition is a necessary prerequisite in order to establish the evaporation path.
The vapour pressure is attained by substituting the value of [L.