Spiracle on A1 located ventrad
and cephalad, whereas that of A2 is aligned with the remaining spiracles and located at center of segment in lateral view.
Subgenital plate semicircular, basal margin nearly straight, posterior margin arched projected, center of which with 1 long conical processes, apex subacute, curved ventrad
Face (Figs 1, 3) with dorsal three quarters generally brown, parallel-sided, with lateral and especially ventral margins yellowish, generally flat, ventral margin of this portion distinctly convex; ventral and ventrolateral portions shiny to subshiny, subshiny portions greyish microtomentose; gena with thin area immediately ventrad
of eye whitish to silvery white, microtomentose; postoccipital thin area immediately posterior to posterior margin silvery white, microtomentose.
At the sub-generic level, the speciose subgenus Hippichthys is characterized by the lateral trunk ridge being deflected ventrad
at the anal ring while Parasyngnathus has no lateral trunk ridge deflection at the anal ring (Dawson 1985).
12, 25, 31) and a serrated keel at the base of a filiform embolus, curved prolaterally dorsad, running a semicircle behind tegulum, appearing retrolaterally and pointing ventrad
in the male palp (Figs.
Heteropterodea is supported by the following synapomorphies: four antennal segments, body with a flattened dorsal area to receive the wings (Hennig 1969, 1981), anal veins of forewing fused forming a Y-shaped vein (Wootton 1965), last antennal segments larger than proximal ones, abdominal tergites flat with sharp connexivum, abdominal spiracles directed ventrad
, anal cone forming a single, exposed element (Schlee 1969d), and wing coupling mechanism of heteropterous type (China 1962).
Herein Nieser's criteria is followed, we consider that the main characteristic of the species in this group is having the ventral diverticulum of male genitalia recurved ventrad
Ventral lip of squamosotympanic fenestra--smooth, without a beaded rim or a depression ventrad
(1); raised as a beaded rim, with distinct depression below it (2).
Both species possess comparable beak placement, the number of umbonal corrugations that curve ventrad
around the umbo, disc convexity, and node shape, node prominence, and number of nodes.
Two protibial sensilla had ventrad
origins with one in a posteroventral position and the second inserted ventrally between that sensillum and the anteroventral spinular spinulae (comb).
The whorl-section is oval with flanks tapering only slightly ventrad
14), sharply enlarged above clypeus (near level of antennae in frontal view), with distinct median carina running from fastigium to level of antennae, obsolete ventrad