In the later seventeenth century, when a system of vice-admiralty
courts developed for ports like Exeter and Boston, appointment became more complex.
In such a geo-political scenario of fifth generation hybrid warfare whereby Pakistan's Armed Forces are fighting against all odds, the government in the centre and in GB are forcing a volcano of resentment to erupt in Gilgit-Baltistan by enacting imperial laws, establishment of vice-admiralty
courts, imposition of taxes, denial of due share in CPEC and grabbing of common lands in the name of Khalisa-e-Sarkar.
over enforcement proceedings in the colonies to a set of vice-admiralty
In the American colonies, the English granted maritime jurisdiction to vice-admiralty
Tables and maps, however, cannot tell the full story--Table 3 reveals only those prizes that made it to the Maritime colonies and successfully underwent the arduous prize adjudication system of the Vice-Admiralty
The biography details his life and family history, his reliance on personal finances and family connections to outfit his ships and pay his crew, his attempt to receive wartime compensation from the government, his testimony at a hearing before a Vice-Admiralty
court in New York after his capture as a rebel, his service in the Rhode Island legislature, his experiences as master of a trading vessel, and how he and his family founded the town of Marietta in the Ohio Territory.
Pirate trials were held in courts of common law, special admiralty courts (Oyer and Terminer), (119) and in the courts of vice-admiralty
. (120) Sometimes pirates were tried before special commissions composed of colonial officials.
(7) (The winning party could recover its own court fees from the loser as part of the taxable costs of litigation.) (8) Fee-paid judges were also commonplace in colonial America; justices of the peace and the judges of the colonial vice-admiralty
courts received a substantial share of their compensation in the form of fees.
(8) The capital of the colony was at Freetown and in May 1807 a Vice-Admiralty
Court was created there and given prize jurisdiction to deal with slave ships captured by the navy.
In Australia, until the operation of the Colonial Courts of Admiralty Act 1890 (Imp), the Vice-Admiralty
courts established in the colonies from the earliest settlement were Imperial courts, separate from the local colonial courts.
In 1810 twenty vessels were condemned in the Vice-Admiralty
Court at Sierra Leone; they were sailing 'under Portuguese or Spanish colours' but were in fact owned by American and British traders.
James Otis, a Boston lawyer and advocate-general of the Boston vice-admiralty
court, mounted vigorous arguments against these "writs of assistance" on the basis of rights long granted in English common law.