The primary conclusions that Scarf draws from his meticulous study of the work of these three authors is as follows: they share a belief that a king is a "viceregent
" of God, they believe that kings owe their allegiance to God, they believe that kings have an inherent glory, and they believe, in a paradoxical way, that the crucified Christ is a model for kingship.
The moral government of God, and his viceregent
, Conscience, ought to be sufficient to restrain men to obedience, to justice, and benevolence, at all times and in all places, we must therefore descend from the dignity of our nature, when we think of civil government at all.
Mentioning the four Caliphs is not an unusual practice in itself but when it is done in a country in which its leader regards himself as the Patriarch of Muslims around the world, and Viceregent
of the last Shi'ite Imam, it might be be construed as having been a pre-planned snub to the hosts.
In the words of Haneef (2002:242), God intended man "to be His viceregent
(khalifah) on earth, to recognise (affirm His existence/tawhid) and to serve Him ('ubudiyyah) as a responsible agent (amin).
Reverend Thomas Bray, an active moral reformer and founder of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, praised God that "he has endowed his Viceregent
, our gracious Queen, with such eminent Virtues, and truly Christian Graces, as draw the Eyes, not only of Her own subjects, but of all Europe upon Her; who do perhaps more gratefully than our selves, bless God in, and for Her." (85) Thomas Freke wrote of her that she "not only shines in Her Illustrious Example of Piety and Moderation, but like the Sun, is continually shining on Her good Subjects." (86) The reformers saw sin as stemming from luxury and overindulgence and associated the monarch with moderation.
(9) Quispels Meinung nach sind mit Minim judische Lehrer gemeint, welche einen Unterschied machten zwischen Gott selbst in seiner Transzendenz und Verborgenheit und seinem "viceregent
", dem Mittler der Offenbarung (Quispel 1954:478).
'Although venerated as God's Viceregent
through all the Eastern Countries of Asia, endowed with a portion of omniscience ...
Cromwell, the new viceregent
, took the matter up, and soon selected Miles Coverdale, a Cambridge scholar who had joined Tyndale in exile, as the person to see the work through.
Kant's critical philosophy, says Laywine, completed the cosmology of sensation by making our understanding God's viceregent
in the sensible world and thus completed also "the project of drawing a sharp distinction between the sensible world and the intelligible world by offering us an account of the schematism of our imagination and the type of the moral law" (p.
William Roughead describes James's aversion to criticism: he "was not prone to forgive them that trespassed against him."(31) John Hill Burton states that "where his own sacred person came into question, all vestiges of mercy fled from his heart, and nothing was too heavy a retribution to him who had been guilty of sacrilege against God's viceregent
Kenrick admits "that the magnificence of this ceremonial" may go against "modern feeling and sentiment; but it is enough that its object is to impress our minds with veneration for the viceregent
of Christ." He also notes that the tradition "derives authority from the splendid ritual which God himself prescribed to the ancient priesthood."(52)
It is also seen in this Shaikh al-Islam acting in a political role as foreign minister and in addition Viceregent
when Iskandar was incapacitated by bouts of insanity.