But when Aramis had presented that peace to her in a true light -- that is to say, with all its advantages; when he had pointed out to her, in exchange for the precarious and contested royalty of Paris, the viceroyalty
of Font-de-l'Arche, in other words, of all Normandy; when he had rung in her ears the five hundred thousand francs promised by the cardinal; when he had dazzled her eyes with the honor bestowed on her by the king in holding her child at the baptismal font, Madame de Longueville contended no longer, except as is the custom with pretty women to contend, and defended herself only to surrender at last.
Andrien, "Corruption, Inefficiency, and Imperial Decline in the Seventeenth-Century Viceroyalty
of Peru", The Americas 41, n.o 1 (1 de julio de 1984): 1-20; Kenneth J.
After 1776, he also assumed high-ranking royal administrative positions such as the governorships of Louisiana (1777-1783) and Cuba (1785), and the viceroyalty
of New Spain (1785-1786), where he died prematurely in office.
Based on archival research and centered on Mexico City during the eighteenth century, Playing in the Cathedral: Music, Race, and Status in New Spain studies the complex processes by which Mexico City Cathedral musicians in the eighteenth century constructed their own status and configured their professional and social profiles in the capital of the Viceroyalty
of New Spain (1535-1821).
Further complicating their rule was the fact that the Philippines was formally administered through the viceroyalty
of New Spain (Mexico), which decided on matters such as colonial expansion and defence, the trans-Pacific trade, and missionary undertakings.
Beginning with the 1833 cholera epidemic, Stevens draws on parish archives and other sources to tell stories about the intimate decisions, hopes, aspirations, and religious commitments of Mexican men and women as they made their way through the transition from the Viceroyalty
of New Spain to an independent republic.
The image sent to a town in the Virreinato de la Nueva Espana (Viceroyalty
of New Spain, now Mexico) never reached its intended destination.
Lima was established as the capital of the Viceroyalty
of Peru in 1543, which at the time included nearly all of South America under Spanish control.
The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty
that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
In 17th-century Ibatin, in the Viceroyalty
of Peru (now Argentina), Don Diego Nunez da Silva, a respected Catholic physician, uses a private moment with his oldest son to reveal their true identity, passed secretly from parent to child since his great-great-grandfather's expulsion from Spain a century earlier.
As the Spanish physician Jose Celestino Mutis y Bossio asserted toward the end of the 1700, considered the father of Medicine in Colombia (Palacios Sanchez, 1998), making his position clear in the sense that it was not sensible, or convenient to bring teachers from Spain, since it was more practical and economical to use the staff that were in the viceroyalty
to prepare physician and surgeons (CortesGarcia).