Perhaps the most punitive measure exercised by British troops and police on the Kikuyu tribe was villagization
, which involved the forced displacement of over a million people from their lands into regulated villages with heinous living conditions, where suspected Mau Mau sympathizers were subject to horrific acts of violence (Newsinger 2006).
For example, from 2010-2013, a villagization
program that promised "socioeconomic and cultural transformation", but that was just another name for forced displacement, was planned for 1.5 million people in Gambella, Afar, Somali and Benishangul-Gumuz.
Similarly, matrilineal characteristics have been forced into the background in Tanzania through a continuous colonial policy that enforced the empowerment of authorities traced patrilineally, and, subsequently, through policies of villagization
Nyerere's devotion to Maoism led to his disastrous "villagization
" program, which forced people to relocate to new farmland in "modern" villages.
of production, a key component of the Ujamaa plan, essentially collectivized all forms of local productive capacity.
People in Gambella previously alleged that the program was harming them by contributing to the government's "villagization
Based on this, the destruction of traditional round huts and their replacement with rectangular houses was a tool that accompanied the 'villagization
' policy implemented in most parts of New Caledonia in the early twentieth century.
(7) The relocation program, or "villagization
process" in Ethiopia's Gambella region--the site of the Saudi Star investment--has been particularly devastating for indigenous communities cut off from sources of food, water, healthcare, and education.
(14.) See Human Rights Watch, 2012, Waiting for Death: Forced Displacement and the "Villagization
" in Ethiopia's Gambella Region, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2012/01/16/ waiting-here-death
(56.) This policy is known as the "villagization
" policy, pursuant to which the government of Rwanda addressed the need for housing by settling returning refugees and displaced groups into designated villages.
Many African civilians were killed, a program of villagization
(in so-called "aldeamentos") was introduced to concentrate the survivors along roads accessible to police and military vehicles, and the majority of the region's inhabitants fled to already-independent Congo.