In aromatase deficiency, the accumulated androgens may cause signs of maternal virilisation
Symptoms N% Abdominal pain 40 Palpable mass 20 Abdominal distension 6 Precocious puberty 2 Virilisation
2 Mastalgia 1 Menorrhagia 33 Postmenopausal bleeding 24 Secondary amenorrhea 0 Constipation 0 Urinary tract symptoms 0 Surgical Approach: Laparotomy and 126 (100%) Laparoscopy n (%) FIGO Stage N (%) Ia 79 Ib 14 Ic 11 Ila 1 IIb 1 IIc 2 IIIa 7 IIIb 4 IIIc 4 IV 3 Surgical staging n(%) Complete surgical staging 85 Incomplete surgical staging 41 PLND n(%) No 44 Yes 82 Fertility sparing surgery n(%) Yes 10 No 116 Postoperative residual tumour n(%) Yes 41 No 85 Intraoperative tumour rupture n(%) Yes 5 No 121 Out of the 84 patients who had complete surgery, those who had chemotherapy did not show recurrence.
Most patients were treated with doses between 100 and 200 mg/d without significant side-effects (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, hirsutism, virilisation
and hepatic disease) being detected at their 6-monthly follow-up visits.
The function of AFP in adult humans is unknown; however, in rodents, it binds to oestradiol to prevent transplacental transport and prevent the virilisation
of female fetuses.
Clinical examination revealed a normally developed female without virilisation
of the external genitalia or a change in voice.
These symptoms included early appearance of pubic or axillary hair (before the age of 8 years), severe acne or hirsutism (determined by a Ferriman-Gallwey score of >8) in adolescents and adults, abnormal menstrual cycles with or without polycystic ovaries, and complete absence of virilisation
They were inducted into a process of virilisation
roughly from the age of 12.
In adolescents and children, virilisation
and premature closure of the epiphyseal plates, which may result in stunted growth, have been described.
(5,9) The index case did not show any signs of virilisation
in either the mother or the baby; therefore, the plasma testosterone levels were not done in our case.
Hirsutism and virilisation
. British Medical Journal, 280(6211), 369-371.
By considering the picaresque figure of Basil Lee in Winter Evening Tales (1820) this paper will illustrate how Scottish writer James Hogg (1770-1835) deconstructs the mystique of Highland masculinity which, in early-nineteenth century Britain, so greatly contributed to both the shaping of Scottish national identity and to the virilisation
of the more feminised commercial England, the centre of the British Empire.
The male pseudohermaphrodite has male gonads and karyotype, but varying degrees of virilisation
of the internal and external genital tracts.