Study had found that pleural invasion involving the pleural surface presented worse prognosis than involvement beyond the elastic layer but still within the visceral pleura
These lesions mainly originate from the visceral pleura
and rarely occur outside the pleura, but they can occur in any part of the body.
Report for every sample should include the following: site (segment from which the sample comes), size (2 maximum diameters in perpendicular directions assessed at the microscope), "central sampling" (mainly bronchial with cartilage plates identified or bronchiolar structures in greater than 40% of the surface of the sample), "peripheral sampling" (with or without visceral pleura
, with alveoli present in at least 60% of the surface of the sample), and histologic pattern (respiratory bronchiolitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, NSIP, organizing pneumonia, UIP, capillaritis, among others).
The visceral pleura
was markedly thickened by a layer of fibrin associated with neutrophils (Figure 1E).
These include spontaneous rupture of subpleural blebs, necrosis of implants on visceral pleura
with resultant air leakage, prostaglandin-induced bronchiolar constriction or bronchial obstruction by endometrial implants, resulting in alveolar rupture, and finally, leakage of air from the genital tract through congenital or acquired defects in the diaphragm.
The base of the tumor is on the visceral pleura
in about three quarters of the patients.
Patients with any of visceral pleura
, parietal pleura, or chest wall involvement were evaluated as having pleural invasion.
The parietal pleura is adherent to the inner surface of the thoracic cavity and the visceral pleura
is a delicate membrane covering the underlying lung tissue.
Solitary fibrous tumor is an uncommon spindle cell tumor which arise mostly from the visceral pleura
. With an incidence of less than 3 per 100000 hospital patients and less than 1000 cases described in the literature, it accounts for almost 5% of all pleural tumors .
The delicate dissection had objectified thickened visceral pleura
. The cystectomy was successfully performed without rupture and the piece was sent to the parasitology laboratory with evidence of proliferative membrane (macroscopically) and alive scolex in the intracystic fluid (microscopically) (Figure 4).
Diffuse pleural thickening is defined as a uni- or bilateral thickening of the visceral pleura
, at least 5 mm in thickness and involving at least one third of the affected lung surface.
Fluid can also enter the pleural space from the interstitial spaces of the lung via the visceral pleura
or from the peritoneal cavity via small holes in the diaphragm.