While the dorsal anterior cingulated cortex mostly forms connections with the hippocampus (papez circuit) and lateral prefrontal cortex, the subgenual cingulated cortex (regional aim of subcaudate tractotomy) forms connections with the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex and the visceromotor
brain stem regions (14).
However, it is known that visceromotor
response (VMR) to balloon distension of the colon is a robust behavioral model of visceral nociception in rodents.
response to gastric distension could be used to study visceral hyperalgesia in conscious animals.
Functional studies can also be performed on enteric and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and intestinal muscle strips, using techniques such as neuroimaging, patch clamp recordings, multiunit afferent recordings, and examination of visceromotor
Since vAI is connected with visceromotor
regions [21, 35], thus, we speculated that the increased FC between right vAI and left putamen in asthmatic patients may involve in the asthma-specific fear.
Chemical (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) or optogenetic activation of the right but not left CeA increased nociceptive visceromotor
responses in a murine urinary bladder distension model, and optogenetic silencing of the left but not right CeA increased bladder distension-induced visceromotor
Changes in the size of pelvic neurons may alter the threshold of reflexes and visceromotor
functions of urogenital organs .
response to colorectal distention fluctuates with the estrous cycle in rats.
The sacral contribution of the parasympathetic nervous system is blocked, causing loss of visceromotor
function of the bladder and intestines distal to the colonic splenic flexure.