Additionally, an increased number of generations of insect pests within an agricultural season (otherwise known as voltinism
) poses the danger of colossal crop damage.
(2014) Mountain pine beetle voltinism
and life history characteristics across latitudinal and elevational gradients in the western United States.
, or the number of generations per year, varies among geographic populations.
(2005) associated commercial traits of silkworm with genetic diversity determined using RAPD markers in 20 silkworm strains differing in voltinism
Second, each species has life-history traits, such as the critical day length for diapause induction (e.g., ), that suit it to its voltinism
. Chrysoperla carnea can utilize a variety of food sources depending on the season and produces several generations each year, whereas C.
Host-plant quality influences diapause and voltinism
in a polyphagous insect herbivore.
aquaticum has variable biological life cycles with differing numbers of instars and alterations to its voltinism
(Adis and Junk, 2003; Adis et al., 2004; Brede et al., 2007).
Bright  who reviewed the present knowledge of secondary production in inland waters concluded that yearly P/B ratios depend primarily on voltinism
. Yule et al.
Historical and projected interactions between climate change and insect voltinism
in a multivoltine species, Global Change Biology 14: 951-957.
At the same time the population monitoring carried out by pheromone traps gave biological information about insect phenology and voltinism
, which was useful for deciding the best period in which to perform the sanitation felling (Faccoli et al., in press).
However, we strongly recommend carrying out thorough periodical sampling over a year and fitting the WL : HCW ratio against the HCW, as suggested by Beer-Stiller and Zwick (1995) to determine voltinism
and identify "real" instars.