Wolff did not therefore follow the voluntarist
tradition of natural law, which was characteristic of Germany's two other famous natural jurists of the early Enlightenment--Samuel Pufendorf and Christian Thomasius.
In doing this, Traherne defines Christ's immanence in the universe "against voluntarist
and emerging 'mechanical' philosophies, delighting instead in the penetrative powers of 'Life it self'" (87-88).
Most agree that Scotus is a voluntarist
of some kind.
Virtue ethics is a rational ethics, while the prevailing approach among modern philosophers, starting with Hume, turned human ends into an irrational matter, addressing ethical problems according to consequentialist, sensist, emotivist, or voluntarist
It is a fact that Malthus did not pay as much attention in the first version of the Essay as in later versions to the obligation to conform to the commands of God as disclosed in Revelation, but can this be taken as evidence that in this regard his theology had evolved, and that the voluntarist
additions by Malthus in 1817 were presented as an alternative to consequentialism and as an ethical criterion that supersedes consequentialism?
Key characteristics of a successful and truly voluntarist
siting process include community consent, continuous engagement with the local community throughout the duration of the project, and a flexible time frame.
One of the biggest problems giving rise to diverging readings of Levinas is the tendency to map his discourse onto superficially similar views that are actually more voluntarist
or decisionist (i.e., "existentialist").
In fact what may look like incoherence is really the visible sign of a fundamental shift in Mailer's thinking from an ideological to a voluntarist
conception of power.
The heavy demands of industrialized major wars of the twentieth century prompted campaigns, from above and from below, to get local and often voluntarist
society to pull its weight actively, to dig for victory, buy war bonds, melt down church bells, and knit socks, to make material sacrifices.
We must now take a brief detour into Murphy's critique of both the natural law and theological voluntarist
accounts of moral laws, which is needed to clear the field of rival accounts.
Indeed, the precise mechanisms of countersubversion in this early period remain cloudy and the agency of the lead actors unclear: how were the Wilsonians in the government the "ringleaders" when the voluntarist
groups conducted their countersubversion "in the name of the government but without official sanction." (20-21) In addition there are factual errors that are distracting: it was Andrea Salsedo, not Roberto Elia, who fell to his death from the window of the Justice Department office in New York in 1920 (57); the Sedition Act was still legislatively applicable in 1919 because it was not repealed until December 1920 (60); and the pope's words are only considered infallible when he speaks ex cathedra.
Both works show voluntarist
as well as rationalist characteristics, she says, which only demonstrates that he developmed an account that cannot be forced into the twofold framework of voluntarism and rationalism.