Beito then eviscerates silly progressive canards regarding the causes of the Great Depression, such as underconsumption/overproduction theory, the effectiveness of the New Deal, and the ineffectiveness of fraternais and other voluntaristic
or self-help institutions.
The content of norms is determined by the will of those lawmakers, against the background of a legal system the characteristics of which are essentially voluntaristic
. This voluntaristic
notion is not the only sense, however, in which the Jesuits thought of law.
In particular, the way that aspiration is typically framed in conjunction with voluntaristic
notions of a free-floating subject - someone who is schooled onto stable and productive career lines that are neither too grand or "unrealistic" for what are defined as his or her capacities, nor insufficiently ambitious and relevant to the needs of society and the demands of knowledge economy job markets.
For instance, she characterised the hunger strike as an effective method for defending the voluntaristic
By contrast, the Nordic countries have maintained a more voluntaristic
, agreement-based approach to collective bargaining, although they have also introduced more company-level bargaining within a centralised framework (Campos Lima and Jorgensen, 2016).
However, Warde argues that its lop-sided focus on the "conspicuous" aspects of consumer behaviour has congealed into a voluntaristic
model of action premised on "an active, expressive, choosing consumer, motivated by concerns for personal identity and a fashioned lifestyle" (4).
Tombs endorses historian Jose Harris's contention that since the Second World War Britain, once "one of the most localized and voluntaristic
countries in Europe," has become "one of the most centralized and bureaucratic." "European integration," Tombs writes, "pushed English and British law and institutions--now often presented as embarrassingly archaic and ripe for modernization'--towards alignment with Continental norms." Less emphasis was placed on the soft compulsion of culture and manners in the promotion of civil order; England joined the rest of the world in becoming ever more reliant on the harder coercion of a rapidly metastasizing statute book and a pervasive administrative bureaucracy--that "giant power," as Honore de Balzac called it, "wielded by pygmies."
The latter thesis is crucial for understanding the development of voluntaristic
theories in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, insofar as it was taken by the advocates of such theories to embody a form of moral "necessitarianism" that was too restrictive of the power of the will.
We must be careful not to slip into the voluntaristic
By the time he completed his dissertation in 1953, he was steeped in the writings of the Chicago School, the sociology of Max Weber and the German methodological debates that framed his work and that of Simmel and others, the development of Emile Durkheim's sociology, leading to the breakthroughs in The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, Freud's work and the development of psychoanalysis generally, the existentialism of Sartre and Camus and of course the full complement of writings concerning Parsons' voluntaristic
theory of action and the reactions to it by Merton and others.
Volkerpsychologie reflected this optimism, seeing the nation not as a fixed racial or ethnic entity, but as voluntaristic
, open-ended, and evolving.
Carneiro places his theory of political evolution in broader context by categorizing it as a "coercive" theory, in contrast to "voluntaristic
" ones; the latter, he says, invariably founder on "the demonstrated inability of autonomous political units to relinquish their sovereignty in the absence of overriding external constraints" (Carneiro, 1970, p.