(2014) used output from the 4-km National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) Model and a radiative transfer model to simulate the ABI's 10.3- and 12.3-[micro]m bands to analyze the low-level pooling of water vapor
. They showed that in clear sky conditions and when the temperature decreases with height in the low levels (which is frequently the case following the mix-out of any low-level temperature inversion), regions with locally deeper water vapor
will be associated with local maxima in the difference between 10.3 and 12.3 [micro]m, referred to as the split window difference (SWD).
That water vapor
rises a few dozen miles into the air during an enormous dust storm and hydrogen gas escapes into space from the top of the Martian atmosphere.
Over the past few years, various studies have been performed to detect the changes in precipitable water vapor
(PWV) using a variety of PWV datasets, which can be retrieved from various sensors such as Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers , radiosondes [6, 11], microwave radiometers [12, 13], Raman radar , multifilter rotating shadow band radiometers (MFRSR) , satellite remote sensing [16,17], and ground-based sun photometry [18, 19].
The use of OLEDs for consumer electronics is growing, however, the electronic components within OLED displays are extremely sensitive to water vapor
. The slightest exposure to humidity can cause a series of problems that significantly decrease a product's usable life.
Atmospheric air contains water vapor
(water in a gaseous form).
Climate models have predicted that as the climate warms from the burning of fossil fuels, the concentrations of water vapor
would also increase in response to that warming, which in turn, would absorb more heat and further raise the Earth's temperature.
The gaseous phase may include both inert air and water vapor
(as treated by most models), or just a single species of water vapor
for simplicity (Janssen et al, 2007).
Figure 1(b) shows the monitored air temperature and the calculated water vapor
(density according to the directly measured air temperature and relative humidity.
produces characteristic absorption bands in the infrared part of a planet's spectrum, but these are completely obliterated by the intense [H.sub.2]O absorptions originating in the earth's atmosphere--for telescopes on the ground.
The adsorption performance of water vapor
at different temperatures on the MFS was investigated and compared with traditional mesoporous materials MCM-41 and SBA15.