While for some Russian intellectuals, the Baltic republics' 'Westernism
' was a point of attraction, for the hoi polloi it was grounds for suspicion.
The petitioner maintained that the main objective behind the Black Day and such like celebrations is to implement the doctrine of Westernism
which is being injected in the youth through the electronic media.
He does not confine any time sequence within the boundaries of modernism and he conceptualizes what modernism brought together with westernism
Jansen offers this analysis of the split in South India between two branches of naturopathic practitioners: those modeling themselves off allopathic medicine with complementary practices, and those promoting patient empowerment through simplicity, non-intervention, and critique of globalized Westernism
. Part one discusses the theory of naturopathy, its historical origins as a method of resistance to colonialism, and its epistemological pluralism and consequent variety of approaches.
The political party he leads, the AKP, emphasizes Muslim identity as the key to defining Turkishness, and criticizes the Kemalists for making Turkey into a little country by its embrace of Westernism
. By reasserting Turkey's authentic self, Muslim nationalists envision that Turkey as a leader of the Muslim world can be a major world power.
Bacyk compared the new pro-Western inclination with the old orientation and defined the shift as follows: "Thus, Turkey is moving from the ideological Westernism
of Kemalism to the strategic Westernism
of Islamists ...
This class has been enormously attracted by the doctrines of jehad and anti- westernism
. While the distance from the Afghan conflict prevented many from going there, the European jehadists have travelled to Syria via Turkey and Jordan in significant numbers.
Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) and Paul Feyerabend's displacement of the necessity of Westernism
for a method of inquiry to be deemed scientific in Against Method (1975/1993).
With this perspective it is possible to examine the texts of "Orientalism" and "Westernism
" by reference to the texts of nineteenth century German historiography and philosophy.
What Hanioglu highlights, perhaps more effectively than any other historian, is the extent to which Social Darwinism, positivism, and a popularized materialism shaped Kemal and his generation and the extent to which these ideas were distilled into a radical Westernism
in the Turkish Republic.
In other words, our ecumenical perspective does not advocate traditional perspectives of Asia alone, which would be a kind of "Asianism." Similarly, we reject Westernism
. What we advocate is the ecumenical point of view, in which the hopes of the peoples of Asia can be met in a just, peaceful, abundant, and happy life on earth, overcoming the forces of destruction and death.
It preaches Westernism
, the toxic fruits of which are all too clear in our supposedly benevolent interventions in the Near and Middle East.