More recently, Justin Nordstrom has noted similar state rhetoric in the US during World War I laying particular responsibilities on women to "serve less food, to prevent household waste and inefficiency, and to observe 'wheatless
' and 'meatless' days, so that vitally needed foodstuffs could be sent to soldiers and civilians overseas." Nordstrom, "And Serve the Cause of Freedom: American Food Conservation in the First World War," Global Food History 3, 1 (2017): 41.
Meatless and wheatless
days were instituted and war taxes were placed on amusements.
There were to be meatless days and wheatless
days when the average American was supposed to replace meat and wheat in his diet with other foods.
Chapters address Chicago's economic, cultural, and political history, as well as the impact of the war on Chicago's soldiers, wartime daily life in Chicago (sometimes described as "wheatless
, meatless, and coalless"), Chicago women and their participation in the first sexual revolution, Chicago's evolving ethnic demographics, and much more.
For those who have celiac disease, there's Wheatless
Bliss, a gluten-free bakery from Bellingham, while those age 21 and older might enjoy some blueberry wine from the Mendon-based Vandervalk Farm and Winery.
However, no good studies have tested whether wheatless
diets are any better for losing weight--or keeping weight off--than other popular weight-loss diets.
During World War I, UC Extension agents also served as local food administrators, helping California communities conserve food by suggesting alternative foods on wheatless
and meatless days, and in rationing scarce products such as sugar.
Young men were, of course, given Sundry reasons to enlist; children were encouraged to hate the enemy and love war, thus predisposing them to become cannon fodder in some future conflict; young women were morally coerced into joining the Red Cross or performing other useful wartime work, while housewives were encouraged to do volunteer work and otherwise turned "into domestic soldiers" (10) whose mission included learning how to prepare meatless meals and wheatless
biscuits while providing a moral compass for the family and a cause for which to fight and die.
To encourage participation, the FDA coined the terms "Meatless Monday" and "Wheatless
Wednesday" and published vegetarian cookbooks and informational pamphlets.
To encourage this voluntary rationing, the FDA coined the terms "Meatless Monday" and "Wheatless
Wednesday" and published a variety of materials including vegetarian cook-books and educational pamphlets.
From the start, national leaders were well aware of the opportunity that the Great War afforded for stoking nationalistic fervor, or what Herbert Hoover, the wartime head of the Federal Food Administration, referred to as "the spirit of self-sacrifice." (38) With his calls for "meatless" Tuesdays, and "wheatless
" Wednesdays, President Woodrow Wilson relied heavily on patriotic sentiment and cooperation to encourage food conservation and other wartime sacrifices.
I appreciated the "Wheatless
" article that appeared in The Register-Guard's Oct.