The canine whipworm
, Trichuris vulpis, is a nasty parasite that lives in the large intestine.
Infections by intestinal worms including the soil-transmitted worms such as giant roundworm, hookworm, whipworm
, and schistosomiasis are an important public health concern.
Soil-transmitted helminths (STH), also known as geohelminths [1, 2], are "intestinal worms infecting humans that are transmitted through contaminated soil." The main soil-transmitted helminthiases include infections with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and whipworm
(Trichuris trichiura) .
Indeed, extensively managed pigs are reported to harbor intestinal helminthes and protozoans  while pigs raised in intensive operations though thought to be less prone to gastrointestinal infestation are infested as well; the large roundworm (Ascaris suum), whipworm
(Trichuris suis), the nodular worms (Oesophagostomum sp), and protozoa (Coccidia) are often found in intensive pig production [8, 9].
The main cause of intestinal parasite infection is soil-borne worm called soil-transmitted helminths (STH), roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm
(Trichuris trichiura), and hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) [1-4].
Erythema dyschromicum perstans has been reported in association with exposure to drugs (penicillin, benzodiazepines, ethambutol, fluoxetine, and omeprazole), radiographic contrast media (barium sulfate), parasitic infestations (whipworm
), fungicide (chlorothalonil), chemicals (ammonium nitrate), herbal consumption (Tokishakuyakusa), endocrinopathies (hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus), dyslipidemia, infections (human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C, and enterovirus), and cobalt allergy [16-20].
After ascariasis and hookworm infections, trichuriasis also called whipworm
infestation is the world's third widespread nematode affecting around 800 million people and a range of mammalian hosts .
found that IL-25 not only enhanced Th2 immune response but also inhibited the secretion of Th1-type cytokines to inhibit gastrointestinal inflammation induced by parasite in a mouse model of whipworm
The parasites identified in the feces samples were the roundworm and the whipworm
. They came from skeletons on the Greek island Kea, near the island Hippocrates lived on, Kos.
'The great triumvirate of enteric nematodes are Ascaris lumbricoides, giant roundworm; Trichuris trichiura, whipworm
; and Enterobius vermicularis, pinworm.'
Human trichuriasis: Whipworm
genetics, phylogeny, transmission and future research directions.