In the last half of the 20th century, there was this tension between people who focus on phonics--which just refers to methods for teaching kids how to connect spelling with spoken language--and the whole-language
approach, which has its own set of faulty assumptions.
And when it becomes impossible for them to ignore all the research, says Pedriana, the constructivists simply include a small quantity of phonics in a larger, mostly whole-language
program and call it "balanced literacy.
Soon, however, the whole-language
movement began to challenge traditional methods with its meaning-based orientation to reading and writing.
model emphasizes a focus on meaning and literature, rather than basic skill instruction such as sounding out words.
Moats exposes scientifically untenable practices in reading instruction, including: (1) use of memorization, picture cues, and contextual guessing for teaching word recognition instead of direct, systematic teaching of decoding and comprehension skills; (2) substitution of teacher modeling and reading aloud for explicit, organized instruction; (3) rejection of systematic and explicit phonics, spelling, or grammar instruction; (4) confusion of phonemic awareness with phonics; (5) reliance on leveled and trade books to organize instruction; and (6) use of whole-language
approaches for English language learners.
When the whole-language
movement began its meteoric rise in the 1980s, Open Court was demonized because of its emphasis on phonics.
has updated this text according to the latest research in skills-based and whole-language
approaches in a highly motivated environment, focusing on fluency, vocabulary and writing.
research: Foundations and development.
To facilitate growth, I would need to provide my students with a consistently balanced and integrated approach to whole-language
development (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2004) which was based on their own learning and behavioral patterns.
As Gerald Coles points out in Reading Lessons, their present incompatibility is evident even in the language each side uses: "The skills side insists that there is a 'method,' while the whole-language
side insists theirs is an 'approach' or 'philosophy'" (19-20).
THERE is "compelling evidence," writes Stephen Krashen, that a reported decline in reading performance in California in the late 1980s and early 1990s really didn't occur, or at the very least was not caused by the introduction of whole-language
reading in the state in 1987.