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Related to whom: To Whom It May Concern


objective case of who: To whom are you speaking?
Not to be confused with:
who – what person or persons: Who was that woman?
Abused, Confused, & Misused Words by Mary Embree Copyright © 2007, 2013 by Mary Embree


The objective case of who. See Usage Note at who.

[Middle English, from Old English hwǣm, hwām; see kwo- in Indo-European roots.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


the objective form of who, used when who is not the subject of its own clause: whom did you say you had seen?; he can't remember whom he saw.
[Old English hwām, dative of hwā who]
Usage: It was formerly considered correct to use whom whenever the objective form of who was required. This is no longer thought to be necessary and the objective form who is now commonly used, even in formal writing: there were several people there who he had met before. Who cannot be used directly after a preposition – the preposition is usually displaced, as in the man (who) he sold his car to. In formal writing whom is preferred in sentences like these: the man to whom he sold his car. There are some types of sentence in which who cannot be used: the refugees, many of whom were old and ill, were allowed across the border
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014



the objective case of who, used as a direct or indirect object: Whom did you call? You gave whom the book?
[before 900; Middle English; Old English hwām, dat. of hwā who]
usage: See who.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.



Who and whom are pronouns.

1. asking for information

You use who when you are asking about someone's identity. Who can be the subject, object, or complement of a verb. It can also be the object of a preposition.

Who invited you?
Who are you?

Be Careful!
When who is the object of a verb or preposition, it is followed by an auxiliary verb, the subject, and then the main verb. When who is the object of a preposition, the preposition must go at the end of the clause. Don't use a preposition in front of who.

Who are you going to invite?
Who did you dance with?

Whom is a formal word which is sometimes used instead of 'who'. Whom can only be the object of a verb or preposition.

Whom shall we call?
By whom are they elected?

Be Careful!
When whom is the object of a preposition, the preposition must go in front of whom. Don't use it at the end of a clause. Don't say, for example 'Whom are they elected by?'

2. used in reported clauses

Who is often used in reported clauses.

She didn't know who I was.
We have to find out who did this.
3. used in relative clauses

Who and whom are used in both defining and non-defining relative clauses.

He's the man who I saw last night.
Joe, who was always early, was there already.
The writer was Philip Pullman, for whom I have great respect.

In relative clauses, you can use either who or which after a collective noun such as family, committee, or group. After who you usually use a plural verb. After which you use a singular verb.

It is important to have a family who love you.
He is a member of a group which does a lot of charitable work.

Be Careful!
When who is the subject of a non-defining clause, don't use another pronoun after it. Don't say, for example, 'He told his mother, who she was very shocked'. Say 'He told his mother, who was very shocked'.

Collins COBUILD English Usage © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 2004, 2011, 2012
aki nekaki takitkiket?kit?
hvernhvern, sem
o queo quêquequem
kohokomus kým
người nào


[huːm] PRON (frm)
1. (in direct and indirect questions) whom did you see?¿a quién viste?
from whom did you receive it?¿de quién lo recibiste?
I know of whom you are talkingde quién hablas
2. (relative) the gentleman whom I sawel señor a quien or al cual or al que vi; (less formal) → el señor que vi
the lady whom I sawla señora a quien or a la cual or a la que vi; (less formal) → la señora que vi
the lady with whom I was talkingla señora con la que or con la cual or con quien hablaba
three policemen, none of whom wore a helmettres policías, ninguno de los cuales llevaba casco
three policemen, two of whom were drunktres policías, dos de los cuales estaban borrachos
three policemen, all of whom were drunktres policías, que estaban todos borrachos who, whom
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005


(in questions)qui
Whom did you see? → Qui avez-vous vu?
To whom did you give it?
BUT À qui l'avez-vous donné?.
(object of relative clauses)que
the man whom I saw → l'homme que j'ai vu
the woman whom I saw → la femme que j'ai vue
(following prep in relative clause)qui
the man to whom I spoke → l'homme à qui j'ai parlé
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(interrog) (acc) → wen; (dat) → wem
(rel) (acc) → den/die/das; (dat) → dem/der/dem; …, all/both of whom were drunk…, die alle/beide betrunken waren; none/all of whomvon denen keine(r, s)/alle
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007


(huː) pronoun
(used as the subject of a verb) what person(s)(?). Who is that woman in the green hat?; Who did that?; Who won?; Do you know who all these people are?
relative pronoun
1. (used to refer to a person or people mentioned previously to distinguish him or them from others. used as the subject of a verb: usually replaceable by that) (the) one(s) that: The man who/that telephoned was a friend of yours; A doctor is a person who looks after people's health.
2. used, after a comma, to introduce a further comment on a person or people. His mother, who was so proud, gave him a hug.
whoˈever relative pronoun
any person or people that. Whoever gets the job will have a lot of work to do.
1. no matter who. Whoever rings, tell him/them I'm out.
2. (also who ever) used in questions to express surprise etc. Whoever said that?
whom (huːm) pronoun
(used as the object of a verb or preposition, but in everyday speech sometimes replaced by who) what person(s)(?). Whom/who do you want to see?; Whom/who did you give it to?; To whom shall I speak?
relative pronoun
(used as the object of a verb or preposition but in everyday speech sometimes replaced by who).
1. (used to refer to a person or people mentioned previously, to distinguish him or them from others. able to be omitted or replaced by that except when following a preposition) (the) one(s) that: The man (whom/that) you mentioned is here; Today I met some friends (whom/that) I hadn't seen for ages; This is the man to whom I gave it; This is the man (whom/who/that) I gave it to.
2. used, after a comma, to introduce a further comment on a person or people. His mother, who was so proud of him, gave him a hug.
know who's who
to know which people are important.
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.


مَنْ komu hvem wem τον οποίο a quién ketä à qui tko che 誰を 누구에게 wie hvem kogo que кто som ผู้ซึ่ง kime/kimi người nào
Multilingual Translator © HarperCollins Publishers 2009
References in classic literature ?
This gentleman had in his youth married a very worthy and beautiful woman, of whom he had been extremely fond: by her he had three children, all of whom died in their infancy.
Natasha had married in the early spring of 1813, and in 1820 already had three daughters besides a son for whom she had longed and whom she was now nursing.
When landing at Portsmouth, Milady was an Englishwoman whom the persecutions of the French drove from La Rochelle; when landing at Boulogne, after a two days' passage, she passed for a Frenchwoman whom the English persecuted at Portsmouth out of their hatred for France.
He felt that he could not endure the weight of universal contempt and exasperation, which he had distinctly seen in the face of the clerk and of Korney, and of everyone, without exception, whom he had met during those two days.
To whom th' Arch-Enemy, And thence in Heav'n call'd Satan, with bold words Breaking the horrid silence thus began.
Besides, the "de" which had been prefixed to his name, raised him to the rank of the person with whom he was conversing.
Great Julius, whom now all the world admires, The more he grew in years, the more inflamed With glory, wept that he had lived so long Ingloroious.
And they uttering their immortal voice, celebrate in song first of all the reverend race of the gods from the beginning, those whom Earth and wide Heaven begot, and the gods sprung of these, givers of good things.
Firstly, by exterminating the families of those lords whom he had despoiled, so as to take away that pretext from the Pope.
He looked all around for some one to whom he might address only one question, but his eyes everywhere met strange faces, and the attention of all was directed towards the chair of state, on which the Stadtholder had seated himself.
There are preachers of death: and the earth is full of those to whom desistance from life must be preached.
One of the most renowned is the Queen of Sheba, mentioned in Scripture, whom the natives call Nicaula or Macheda, and in their translation of the gospel, Nagista Azeb, which in their language is Queen of the South.