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Related to whom: To Whom It May Concern


The objective case of who. See Usage Note at who.

[Middle English, from Old English hwǣm, hwām; see kwo- in Indo-European roots.]


the objective form of who, used when who is not the subject of its own clause: whom did you say you had seen?; he can't remember whom he saw.
[Old English hwām, dative of hwā who]
Usage: It was formerly considered correct to use whom whenever the objective form of who was required. This is no longer thought to be necessary and the objective form who is now commonly used, even in formal writing: there were several people there who he had met before. Who cannot be used directly after a preposition – the preposition is usually displaced, as in the man (who) he sold his car to. In formal writing whom is preferred in sentences like these: the man to whom he sold his car. There are some types of sentence in which who cannot be used: the refugees, many of whom were old and ill, were allowed across the border



the objective case of who, used as a direct or indirect object: Whom did you call? You gave whom the book?
[before 900; Middle English; Old English hwām, dat. of hwā who]
usage: See who.



Who and whom are pronouns.

1. asking for information

You use who when you are asking about someone's identity. Who can be the subject, object, or complement of a verb. It can also be the object of a preposition.

Who invited you?
Who are you?

Be Careful!
When who is the object of a verb or preposition, it is followed by an auxiliary verb, the subject, and then the main verb. When who is the object of a preposition, the preposition must go at the end of the clause. Don't use a preposition in front of who.

Who are you going to invite?
Who did you dance with?

Whom is a formal word which is sometimes used instead of 'who'. Whom can only be the object of a verb or preposition.

Whom shall we call?
By whom are they elected?

Be Careful!
When whom is the object of a preposition, the preposition must go in front of whom. Don't use it at the end of a clause. Don't say, for example 'Whom are they elected by?'

2. used in reported clauses

Who is often used in reported clauses.

She didn't know who I was.
We have to find out who did this.
3. used in relative clauses

Who and whom are used in both defining and non-defining relative clauses.

He's the man who I saw last night.
Joe, who was always early, was there already.
The writer was Philip Pullman, for whom I have great respect.

In relative clauses, you can use either who or which after a collective noun such as family, committee, or group. After who you usually use a plural verb. After which you use a singular verb.

It is important to have a family who love you.
He is a member of a group which does a lot of charitable work.

Be Careful!
When who is the subject of a non-defining clause, don't use another pronoun after it. Don't say, for example, 'He told his mother, who she was very shocked'. Say 'He told his mother, who was very shocked'.

aki nekaki takitkiket?kit?
hvernhvern, sem
o queo quêquequem
kohokomus kým
người nào


[huːm] PRON (frm)
1. (in direct and indirect questions) whom did you see?¿a quién viste?
from whom did you receive it?¿de quién lo recibiste?
I know of whom you are talkingde quién hablas
2. (relative) the gentleman whom I sawel señor a quien or al cual or al que vi; (less formal) → el señor que vi
the lady whom I sawla señora a quien or a la cual or a la que vi; (less formal) → la señora que vi
the lady with whom I was talkingla señora con la que or con la cual or con quien hablaba
three policemen, none of whom wore a helmettres policías, ninguno de los cuales llevaba casco
three policemen, two of whom were drunktres policías, dos de los cuales estaban borrachos
three policemen, all of whom were drunktres policías, que estaban todos borrachos who, whom


(in questions)qui
Whom did you see? → Qui avez-vous vu?
To whom did you give it?
BUT À qui l'avez-vous donné?.
(object of relative clauses)que
the man whom I saw → l'homme que j'ai vu
the woman whom I saw → la femme que j'ai vue
(following prep in relative clause)qui
the man to whom I spoke → l'homme à qui j'ai parlé


(interrog) (acc) → wen; (dat) → wem
(rel) (acc) → den/die/das; (dat) → dem/der/dem; …, all/both of whom were drunk…, die alle/beide betrunken waren; none/all of whomvon denen keine(r, s)/alle


(huː) pronoun
(used as the subject of a verb) what person(s)(?). Who is that woman in the green hat?; Who did that?; Who won?; Do you know who all these people are?
relative pronoun
1. (used to refer to a person or people mentioned previously to distinguish him or them from others. used as the subject of a verb: usually replaceable by that) (the) one(s) that: The man who/that telephoned was a friend of yours; A doctor is a person who looks after people's health.
2. used, after a comma, to introduce a further comment on a person or people. His mother, who was so proud, gave him a hug.
whoˈever relative pronoun
any person or people that. Whoever gets the job will have a lot of work to do.
1. no matter who. Whoever rings, tell him/them I'm out.
2. (also who ever) used in questions to express surprise etc. Whoever said that?
whom (huːm) pronoun
(used as the object of a verb or preposition, but in everyday speech sometimes replaced by who) what person(s)(?). Whom/who do you want to see?; Whom/who did you give it to?; To whom shall I speak?
relative pronoun
(used as the object of a verb or preposition but in everyday speech sometimes replaced by who).
1. (used to refer to a person or people mentioned previously, to distinguish him or them from others. able to be omitted or replaced by that except when following a preposition) (the) one(s) that: The man (whom/that) you mentioned is here; Today I met some friends (whom/that) I hadn't seen for ages; This is the man to whom I gave it; This is the man (whom/who/that) I gave it to.
2. used, after a comma, to introduce a further comment on a person or people. His mother, who was so proud of him, gave him a hug.
know who's who
to know which people are important.


مَنْ komu hvem wem τον οποίο a quién ketä à qui tko che 誰を 누구에게 wie hvem kogo que кто som ผู้ซึ่ง kime/kimi người nào
References in classic literature ?
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Koku was an immense man, a veritable giant, one of two whom Tom had brought back with him after an exciting trip to a strange land.
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A requirement that the worker submit regular or written reports to the person or persons for whom the services are performed indicates a certain degree of control.
Given a convenient alternative to raising daughters whom most adults in these locations refer to as "useless things," Wolf says, women willingly relinquish the girls as child brides.
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Yet he was also a fierce individualist who retreated to private life whenever possible, and it is this person on whom Brookhiser focuses.
But perhaps the most surprising act yet from the sexpert and wayward feminist icon is her latest book, Child No More, a tender memoir in which she writes about the tumultuous relationship between her Jewish intellectual father, whom she adored, and her German model mother, with whom she was often at odds--against the backdrop of World War II.
The divide is between those for whom life is purely material and those for whom the material in this world is the instrument for the spiritual.
Weimar culture, according to Bodek, was saturated by a social-utilitarian aesthetic: "Regardless of their political position and their aesthetic orientation, Weimar critics and thinkers operated within the paradigm of use value, asking to whom a particular piece would be useful.
Recalling the shifting perspectives that we find in such texts as Ernest Gaines's A Gathering Old Men and, before him, William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury, Tervalon constructs his novel out of the stream-of-consciousness voices of a wide range of black characters, the sheer diversity of whom complicates and subverts any reductive tendency to view the black community as monolithic.