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1. The possessive form of who.
2. The possessive form of which.

[Middle English whos, from Old English hwæs; see kwo- in Indo-European roots.]
Usage Note: The use of whose to refer to inanimate antecedents (as in We could see a building whose roof was painted gold) has been criticized by usage commentators since the 1700s. The tradition holds that whose should function only as the possessive of who, and be limited in reference to persons. Nonetheless, whose has been used to refer to inanimate things since the 1300s, and it appears in the works of many illustrious writers, including Shakespeare, Milton, and Wordsworth. This use of whose undoubtedly serves a useful purpose, since which and that do not have possessive forms, and the substitute phrase of which is often cumbersome. Thus, the sentence He pointed to a grove of trees whose trunks were coated with ice is made somewhat stilted by the avoidance of whose: He pointed to a grove of trees, the trunks of which were coated with ice. As sentences become more complicated, the use of of which can be especially clumsy. But the notion of whose properly being a form of who (and not which) has considerable bearing on attitudes about the word. In our 2002 survey, only 44 percent of the Usage Panel approved of an example in which whose refers to a river: The EPA has decided to dredge the river, whose bottom has been polluted for years. The association of whose with people undoubtedly influenced the Panel's response to an example that is syntactically similar to the previous one, in which the antecedent is a book, but the subject of the whose clause is a person. Some 63 percent of the Panel accepted the sentence The book, whose narrator speaks in the first person, is a mock autobiography. Note that this still leaves almost 40 percent of the Panel in disapproval. Because the alternative phrasing to whose can be so awkward, there is often no easy solution to this problem except to recast the sentence to avoid whose altogether. See Usage Notes at else, which, who.


a. of whom? belonging to whom? used in direct and indirect questions: I told him whose fault it was; whose car is this?.
b. (as pronoun): whose is that?.
2. of whom; belonging to whom; of which; belonging to which: used as a relative pronoun: a house whose windows are broken.
[Old English hwæs, genitive of hwā who and hwæt what]



1. the possessive case of who used as an adjective: someone whose faith is strong.
2. the possessive case of which used as an adjective: a word whose meaning escapes me; a cat whose fur is white.
3. the one or ones belonging to what person or persons: Whose umbrella is that?
[before 900; Middle English whos, early Middle English hwās, alter. of hwas, Old English hwæs, genitive of hwā who]
usage: Sometimes the phrase of which is used as the possessive of which:Chicago is a city of which the attractions are many or Chicago is a city the attractions of which are many. The use of this phrase can often seem awkward or pretentious, whereas whose sounds more idiomatic: Chicago is a city whose attractions are many.


1. used in relative clauses

You use a noun phrase containing whose /huːz/ at the beginning of a relative clause to show who or what something belongs to or is connected with. Whose is used in both defining and non-defining clauses.

A noun phrase containing whose can be the subject or object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.

It is a story whose purpose is to entertain.
This was one of the students whose work I had seen.

When whose is the object of a preposition, the preposition can come at the beginning or end of the clause.

You should consider the people in whose home you are staying.
It was an article whose subject I have never heard of.
2. used in questions

You use whose in questions when you are asking who something belongs to or is connected with. Whose can be a determiner or a pronoun.

Whose fault is it?
Whose is this?
3. used in reported clauses

Whose is also used in reported clauses.

It would be interesting to know whose idea it was.
Do you know whose fault it is?

Be Careful!
Don't confuse whose with who's, which is also pronounced /huːz/. When you write down what someone says, you can write 'who is' or 'who has' as who's. Don't write them as 'whose'.

'Edward drove me here.' – 'Who's Edward?'
Who's left these boots here?
aki éaki nek aki é?ki nek a ...?
hvershvers, sem
누구의누구의 것
của ai


A. PRON (in direct and indirect questions) → de quién
whose is this?¿de quién es esto?
whose are these? (1 owner expected) → ¿de quién son éstos?; (2 or more owners expected) → ¿de quiénes son éstos?
I don't know whose it isno sé de quién es
1. (in direct and indirect questions) → de quién
whose purse is this?¿de quién es este monedero?
whose cars are these? (1 owner expected) → ¿de quién son estos coches?; (2 or more owners expected) → ¿de quiénes son estos coches?
whose fault was it?¿quién tuvo la culpa?
whose car did you go in?¿en qué coche fuiste?
do you know whose hat this is?¿sabes de quién es este sombrero?
I don't know whose watch this isno sé de quién es este reloj
2. (relative) → cuyo
those whose passports I haveaquellas personas cuyos pasaportes tengo, or de las que tengo pasaportes
the man whose hat I tookel hombre cuyo sombrero tomé
the man whose seat I sat inel hombre en cuya silla me senté
the cup whose handle you brokela taza a la que le rompiste el asa

In direct and indirect questions
 Whose in direct questions as well as after report verbs and expressions of (un)certainty and doubt (e.g. no sé) translates as de quién/de quiénes, (never cuyo):
Whose coat is this? ¿De quién es este abrigo? He asked us whose coats they were Nos preguntó de quiénes eran los abrigos I don't know whose umbrella this is No sé de quién es este paraguas
As a relative
 In relative clauses whose can be translated by cuyo/cuya/cuyos/cuyas and must agree with the following noun:
The man whose daughter is a friend of Emily's works for the Government El señor cuya hija es amiga de Emily trabaja para el Gobierno ...the house whose roof collapsed... ...la casa cuyo tejado se hundió...
NOTE When whose refers to more than one noun, make cuyo agree with the first:
...a party whose policies and strategies are very extremist... ...un partido cuya política y tácticas son muy extremistas...
 However, cuyo is not much used in spoken Spanish. Try using another structure instead:
...the house whose roof collapsed... ...la casa a la que se le hundió el tejado... My daughter, whose short story won a prize in the school competition, wants to be a journalist Mi hija, a quien premiaron por su relato en el concurso de la escuela, quiere ser periodista
! There is no accent on quien here, as it is a relative pronoun.


(in questions)à qui
Whose book is this? → À qui est ce livre?
Whose pencil have you taken? → À qui est le crayon que vous avez pris?
Whose daughter are you?
BUT De qui êtes-vous la fille?.
(in relative clauses)dont
the man whose son you rescued → l'homme dont vous avez sauvé le fils
the woman whose car was stolen → la femme dont la voiture a été volée
the girl whose picture was in the paper → la jeune fille dont la photo était dans le journal
(in questions)à qui
Whose is this? → À qui est ceci?, À qui est-ce?
(in relative clauses)
I know whose it is → Je sais à qui cela appartient.


poss pron
(interrog) → wessen; whose is this?wem gehört das?; whose car did you go in?in wessen Auto sind Sie gefahren?
(rel) → dessen; (after f and pl) → deren


(huːz) adjective, pronoun
belonging to which person(?). Whose is this jacket?; Whose (jacket) is this?; Whose car did you come back in?; In whose house did this incident happen?; Tell me whose (pens) these are.
relative adjective, relative pronoun
of whom or which (the). Show me the boy whose father is a policeman; What is the name of the man whose this book is?


الَّذِي, لـِمَنْ čí hvis dessen, wessen τίνος, του οποίου cuyo, de quién kenen à qui, dont čije, čiji di chi 誰の, 誰のもの 누구의, 누구의 것 van wie hvem sin czyj cujo, de quem чей vars ของใคร, ของผู้ใด ki onun, kimin của ai 谁的
References in classic literature ?
On the other hand, here come whole tribes of people whose physical lives are but a deteriorated variety of life, and themselves a meaner species of mankind; so sad an effect has been wrought by the tainted breath of cities, scanty and unwholesome food, destructive modes of labor, and the lack of those moral supports that might partially have counteracted such bad influences.
Perhaps, moreover, he whose genius appears deepest and truest excels his fellows in nothing save the knack of expression; he throws out occasionally a lucky hint at truths of which every human soul is profoundly, though unutterably, conscious.
minister and kinsman of a petty kinglet under the Chou dynasty, whose `Li Sao', literally translated `Falling into Trouble', is partly autobiography and partly imagination.
He did not know whose it was; it belonged to the pond.
Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal tast Brought Death into the World, and all our woe, With loss of EDEN, till one greater Man Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat, Sing Heav'nly Muse, that on the secret top Of OREB, or of SINAI, didst inspire That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed, In the Beginning how the Heav'ns and Earth Rose out of CHAOS: Or if SION Hill Delight thee more, and SILOA'S Brook that flow'd Fast by the Oracle of God; I thence Invoke thy aid to my adventrous Song, That with no middle flight intends to soar Above th' AONIAN Mount, while it pursues Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhime.
Every passage of a ship of yesterday, whose yards were braced round eagerly the very moment the pilot, with his pockets full of letters, had got over the side, was like a race - a race against time, against an ideal standard of achievement outstripping the expectations of common men.
It belongs to all the books of the great Norwegian Bjorstjerne Bjornson, whose 'Arne,' and whose 'Happy Boy,' and whose 'Fisher Maiden' I read in this same fortunate sickness.
The second clause of the second section of the second article empowers the President of the United States "to nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other OFFICERS of United States whose appointments are NOT in the Constitution OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, and WHICH SHALL BE ESTABLISHED BY LAW.
was at the gates of Saint-Denis and Saint-Martin, whose situation has not been changed.
You will be under the care of a motherly good sort of woman, of whose kindness to you I can have no doubt.
As the stone which has been kicked by generations of clowns may come by curious little links of effect under the eyes of a scholar, through whose labors it may at last fix the date of invasions and unlock religions, so a bit of ink and paper which has long been an innocent wrapping or stop-gap may at last be laid open under the one pair of eyes which have knowledge enough to turn it into the opening of a catastrophe.
Mr Jones had somewhat about him, which, though I think writers are not thoroughly agreed in its name, doth certainly inhabit some human breasts; whose use is not so properly to distinguish right from wrong, as to prompt and incite them to the former, and to restrain and withhold them from the latter.