"Sometimes if the temperature of the geofluid is too low to generate much steam, we can still use it to boil a 'binary working fluid
' other than water, and use that vapor to drive the turbine.
Pumped Two Phase Cooling, also known as Pumped Evaporative Cooling, is an active cooling technology that utilizes the latent energy associated with the boiling of a working fluid
to efficiently remove large amounts of waste heat.
"The CST is a technology that concentrates the direct sunlight so that the working fluid
would produce steam that would turn the turbine that produces electricity," Enano explained.
The problem is that heat exchangers, which transfer heat from the hot molten salt to the working fluid
, are currently made of stainless steel or nickel-based alloys that get too soft at the desired higher temperatures and at the elevated pressure of supercritical carbon dioxide.
An ORC is analogous to the conventional Rankine system but uses a biological or organic fluid as working fluid
instead of water.
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To operate a Rankine cycle at least four components have to be provided: a pump which transports the working fluid
(WF) through the system; a vaporizer which vaporizes the working fluid
; an expander which transforms the steam energy into usable mechanical energy and a condenser which cools down the working fluid
until it is condensed .
It was observed that selecting the best working fluid
and careful matching to the available waste heat source and sink are critical for the best performance of these systems as well as the design of heat exchangers and components such as pumps, and turbines.
The initial temperature, cylinder pressure, and composition of the working fluid
(air-fuel mixture) play an important role in determining the combustion characteristics and consequently the emissions from an engine.
Heat pipes use the latent heat of vaporization of a working fluid
to transfer heat.
In this study the working fluid
was pumped more than 30 times to have a homogeneous solution in each case.